1913 Dawn of The New Age

“‘progressive’ is what we like, and the word ‘new,’ be it the New Nationalism of Roosevelt, the New Freedom of Wilson, or the New Socialism of the syndicalists.”

Drift and Mastery, Walter Lippmann

Introduction xix

During our forensic investigation into the Progressive Era (1910-1920), we came upon one particular year more interesting than any other. The year, 1913. A year so profound in its influence that we contend there were no other in the twentieth century more responsible for our modern-day condition. It was while researching the Wilson administration that we noticed first the many accomplishments during Wilson’s extraordinary first full year in office. Even more intriguing was how each of the most relevant founding fathers of Progressivism, Wilson included, all published books, not only during the president’s first term but during Wilson’s first year in office. All within months of each other, and it appears they were all intent on applying the word ‘new’ to the titles. Even the subject matter of each book echoed the other, all of them carrying the same moral message, each promoting Theodore Roosevelt as the movements leader. Each containing parallels in their scheme, calling for a more centralized, scientifically technical government built upon the two main pillars of Progressivism: Efficiency and Preparedness. 

Herein we describe the extraordinary events of the year 1913 and declare that these are the men who put ‘new’ in ‘new world order’. These were the men who established the forward motion necessary to move society at large through an age of radical social reform. Herein we detail the philosophies, ideologies and concepts that inspire the institutions, foundations, and organizations, that spark the most influential political movement in American history and the most radical reforms of the human being ever recorded in the Western world.   

The Federal Reserve

The Twelve Federal Reserve Banks, all of a restrained, stripped, starved, or even brutal neo-classical architectural styling.

Rome University, 1938

Zeppelinfield, Germany, 1938

Woodrow Wilson inaugurated as President of the United States

Wilsonianism opened the flood gates to all kinds of domestic and foreign policy that today still stand as representatives of those very institutions most destructive to our Western world. His first term focused primarily on domestic issues through his New Freedom initiatives, while his second term established now longheld American foreign attitudes, and a new order of things through internationalism. Listed below is an incomplete list of radical social reforms made during Wilson’s first twelve months in office.

The Federal Reserve founded. This private organization, based on usury and speculation, lending money to the Unites States at interest, may be the most profoundly responsible for our modern day enslavement. Created two days before Christmas in 1913 as an answer to financial panics, the Federal Reserve has done little in the over one hundred years since its creation to ameliorate financial crashes from occurring on the regular. The Great Depression itself occurring only a decade and a half after the Fed’s founding.

Every generation since has suffered, and the abhorrently high national debts of all Western countries can look to the centralization of the banking industry as the main culprit. The Fed, created under deep secrecy, involving all of the usual suspects including the man who some even call its architect, Louis Dembitz Brandeis.

The Federal Trade Commission Act, Savings Bank Life-Insurance, a Federal Income Tax, the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, all monumental in themselves, also appear for the first time during Wilsons first year. This we see when looking through the lens of an investigative forensic historian, as the creation of the Administrative State. The Progressive mantra is ‘a centralized government led by the technical expert’, and each institution within the State fulfilling the role of the expert, each advising the government through what Lippmann called “intelligence bureaus”.

Which reminds us to mention how the new world order can be seen in the very architecture of the Federal Reserve building itself.  The Eccles Building was constructed, as were many government buildings in the 1930s under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in the Restrained, or Starved, or Strained Neoclassical style preferred by all totalitarian leaders of the twentieth century including: Stalin, Lenin, Mussolini, Hitler, FDR and Woodrow Wilson. A style in which all ornamentation, imagination, and beauty was removed, the sheer stone resembling the coldness of later brutalism, dominant and intimidating, the gargantuanism of government.

Harry S. Truman, U.S. State Department

Robert  F. Kennedy, U.S. Justice Department

The Principles of Scientific Management, written by Frederick Winslow Taylor, was first distributed  only to engineers and factory owners in 1911, but officially republished to the public in 1913.  Both editions with a fasces dead center, pressed right into the very fabric. The management of society through science now known simply as Taylorism, and the concept is largely considered today as, “the most influential ‘ism’ of the twentieth century”. Taylor’s Principles the most influential book of the movement and a pillar at the very center of the Progressive movement (1900-1914).

The venerable Louis Brandeis wasn’t just involved in the creation of the Fed, he is the one coining the term ‘scientific management’ and popularizing the book through his famous Muller v. Oregon case. The case garnered headlines across the nation, and Brandeis didn’t waste the opportunity. He was the first to argue law almost solely on sociological and scientific data, to the near exclusion of citations, and traditional legal argument. With help from his sister-in-law, Josephine Goldmark, his ‘Brandeis Brief’ altered case law forever and served as a legal landmark that replaced traditional practice of law. Brandeis credited Taylor’s book for the basis of his argument, and elevated the popularity of industrial efficiency across the United States. Brandeis, Frankfurter, and Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. – three Supreme Court Justices – along with the rest of the House of Truth crowd, were very important in changing the attitude of the Supreme Court.

Historical documents showing that a worldwide Taylor Society was born to promote Taylorism, originally funded by the Fabian Society(!)  An early member was Marxist Walter Polakov, who worked with Taylor, Henry Gantt, Frank Gilbreth, and Harrington Emerson in bringing these ideas to Russia and around the world. Polokov working directly with the US Emergency Fleet Corporation as the US entered the Great War.  Lenin, Stalin, and Trotsky all publicly acknowledged the importance of Taylorism.

“Lenin was a political revolutionary untrained in the intracies of factory management. However, he was aware of the writings of the father of scientific management, Frederick W. Taylor, long before the Revolution. Taylor’s work had been translated into Russian and Lenin hoped to find in this model an answer for Russian industry, as the United States had found one at the turn of the twentieth century.” Daniel A. Wren, University of Oklahoma, Scientific Management in the U.S.S.R.

The Principles translated into many languages. Mu Xiangyue, a Shanghai native graduate of scientific agriculture at the University of Illinois and Texas A&M translated it into Chinese and was very popular among a variety of governments for obvious reasons:  “This collective interest in ‘new’ Management extended beyond personnel issues to embrace organizational design, industrial psychology, and the Industrial Rationalization movement around the world.”

“In the past the man has been first; in the future the system must be first.” pg. 7.

Taylor is named only an honourary member at the initial meeting of the Society that would eventually bear his name, showing an already relegated position within the movement. (See bulletin). The main question at the first meeting was of labour unions. Taylor in an address to the Society talked of a meeting he had with Frankfurter and Valentine in which they appear adversarial regarding the role of the union. Taylor speaking from a position sympathetic to the business owners stating the two obstacles forbidding them from joining with the employees was:

“their demand for a restricted output and their demand for collective bargaining. There is not a union in the United States which does not demand these two things. It is an economic fact that increased wages and general greater prosperity can come only with increased output. The unions fight exactly that principle. They must agree upon increased output before we can co-operate with them. Mr. Frankfurter argued that an entirely new set of union men are coming in. They may be coming but we are not willing to acknowledge that they are here. A union of workmen who will not restrict output is what we want.”

Their literature also revealing a future meeting in February of 1915 was to be held in New Haven Connecticut, inside the Mason Laboratory, at Yale University, on “cost accounting”. And a dinner to be held at, of all places, the Taft Hotel. Interesting topic to be discussed at the home of the executive arm of Skull and Bones, The Russell Sage Foundation. And it all took place at a hotel named after son of the founder of Skull and Bones, William Howard Taft. Taylor would be dead by March 1915, and in November of 1916, Valentine would die of a heart attack while having a late dinner at Delmonico’s with Felix Frankfurter, Emory Buckner, Sam Rosensohn, and Harvard psychiatrist and criminologist, Herman Adler. Taylor was only fifty-nine, while Valentine was only forty-four years young.

“Valentine’s business thrived because he had the courage to implement part of the ‘Social Program’ that he and Frankfurter had outlined on the living room floor of the House of Truth when they had ‘discovered the center of the universe.'” Brad Snyder, The House of Truth

Marcel Duchamp’s, Nude Descending A Staircase

Duchamp’s work resembling that of earlier chronophotography by Etienne-Jules Marey, Man Walking, 1890-91

Gutzon Borglum

Nude in a Wood, Henri Matisse

Luxury II, Henri Matisse

The New Spirit. also know as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, begins with the 1913 Armory Show. Promoted as part of a larger movement known, not so coincidentally as, The New Spirit, obscures traditional early American art style by infusing new, experimental styles of European avant-garde, Fauvism, Cubism, Impressionism, and abstract expressionism. We see very clearly the first attempt at altering the image of the human figure. The Changing Images of Man. This the introduction of modern art to America. Guests included on the three-city tour were contemporary legends of the art world: Cezanne, Duchamp, Manet, Matisse, Monet, Renoir, Surat, and Vincent Van Gogh.

The shows were organized by the American Association of Painters and Sculptors and one of the founding members of the AAPS just so happens to be Gutzon Borglum, a frequent guest at the House of Truth, where he designed Mt. Rushmore on the dining room table.

Marcel Duchamp’s, Nude Descending a Staircase, created a stir merely from its title, showing something resembling the shape of a human body, somewhere between cubist and futurist, the figure leaves no indication as to its gender, or whether it is even human.  This painting and several others caused controversy, the imagery of Nude Descending Staircase, when looking closely, show the dynamic fragmentation of the human figure, the knees bent, the body leaning back, the only discernible body parts hidden behind cylinder and abstraction, as the androgynous futuristic figure progressively descends rather than ascends a set of stairs.

“What contributed to the interest provoked by the canvas was its title. One just doesn’t do a nude woman coming down the stairs … it seemed scandalous.” Marcel Duchamp in a late interview seems to point to the figure being female however admits that the name was what may have had everyone interested.

The Armory Shows proved to be scandalous as America was not accustomed to the radical new European modernist art movement. Henri Matisse’s distortion of the human form facing much backlash, and provide yet another example of the soft social science techniques being applied to American society. Their stated mission even was to “lead the public taste in art, rather than follow it.” Sounding much like the agenda of the Metaphysical Club’s infusion of philosophy a decade earlier.

Borglum’s own artistic themes centered of course around heroic images of US nationalism and the aesthetic variation of Bull Moose patriotism. Interesting to note that this infusion of Expressionist art just ahead of its infiltration of Hollywood through the film noir genre – as discussed in our previous article, Hidden in the Shadow of the Sun.  The delay between the two, almost as if they were waiting for the technology of the motion picture to catch up before they could apply it upon society.  The dynamic effect of art in motion far more powerful than the expressionists traditional ability to just paint a still picture.

Borglum was a very active member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, raised in Howard Lodge #35, New York City, on June 10, 1904, and serving as its Worshipful Master 1910–11.

In 1915, he was appointed Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Denmark near the Grand Lodge of New York. He received his Scottish Rite Degrees in the New York City Consistory on October 25, 1907. He was close personal friends of Theodore Roosevelt, a fellow well-known Mason, and very active during the 1912 US presidential election campaign as an organizer and member of the Bull Moose Party.

“The scholar and research professor emeritus H. Wayne Morgan considers the ‘conflict between modern and traditional art’ in the early twentieth century to be ‘one of the best known episodes in American cultural history.’ The International Exhibition of Modern Art, the most important art exhibition ever held in the United States, served as the catalyst for this controversy.'”

“The origins of the show lie in the emergence of progressive groups and independent exhibitions in the early twentieth century (with significant French precedents), which challenged the aesthetic ideals, exclusionary policies, and authority of the National Academy of Design, while expanding exhibition and sales opportunities, enhancing public knowledge, and enlarging audiences for contemporary art.” Avis Berman, As National as the National Biscuit Company; The Academy, the Critics, and the Armory Show, Rave Reviews American Art and Its Critics, 1826-1925. New York National Academy of Design, pg. 131

The Blue Nude, Henri Matisse

Imposition of a federal income tax on February 3 by the US government signals the first time a permanent, collective system of taxation is applied in the United States.

Federal Trade Commission founded. While the first speech on the House floor advocating its creation was in February of 1912, and the Act itself was created officially in 1914, the obvious leg work primarily accomplished in the time in between. The FTC an authority on interstate trade set alight by the 1911 decision to break Standard Oil’s monopoly. The conclusions drawn some one hundred years later are clear, these organizations doing very little to curtail wrongdoing while the challenges and issues have only grown more and more profound. The FTC obviously doing very little to prevent monopolization, or Morganization, as we see Standard Oil’s dominance continue unabated, even aided in enlarging their already massive fortune by the ruling, becoming even more absolute only under new titles like: Exxon, Mobil, Esso, and BP. Louis Brandeis also very involved in the creation of the Federal Trade Commission.

Henry Ford installs the moving-chassis assembly line in October of 1913, sparking the era of mass production and the automobile era all at once.  Otherwise known as progressive assembly, the introduction of the assembly line was a revolutionary improvement over the previous semi-automated production line system. Assembly lines for the first time, created an enormous advantage for the employer, the non-stop conveyance system diminished the workforce to a mathematical equation, each detail of the process perfected, allowing the employer to set the pace, minimize labour, and maximize profits. The Highland Park Factory in Michigan shrinking the manufacture time of an automobile from more than 12 hours to less than 2. The first significant joining of man and machine, a connecting of the human hand with the control arm, like two fingers nearly touching, reminiscent of, The Creation of Adam.

This not without significance from another entirely different perspective, in that,  A Brave New World, was set in the year 632 a.f. (after Ford). Ford considered God, and the roll out of the first automobile, marked as the very first day of their utopian calendar. Ford also referring to himself as Freud when speaking of psychological matters.  

The Rockefeller Foundation goes public on March 14, 1913, following the acceptance of its charter. This one 501C, not-for-profit the most responsible Foundation of our enslavement, formed from another private, yet very public sounding, General Education Board. Inspired by an initial $100 million donation from John D. Rockefeller. The Rockefeller Foundation funding the creation of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Inquiry, the Cybernetics Revolution, Alfred Kinsey’s sex research, the Princeton Radio Research Project, and our entire Western education, agricultural, and medical industries. Rockefeller today stands, along side The Federal Reserve, and the “sage advisor to all”, Louis Brandeis, as possible public enemy number one. Rockefeller involvement so omniscient in our lives today, and their many interlocking affiliations so well documented throughout the century by hundreds of researchers, little needs to be said of their involvement in the Dawn of The New Age.

The first Suffrage March on March 3, 1913. One day before Wilson’s inauguration, the Suffragette movement officially gets under way.

A key member of the Woman’s movement was Josephine Goldmark, the aforementioned sister-in-law to Louis Brandeis. Along with other members of the progressive National Consumers League, Goldmark gathered for the Brandeis case, over one hundred pages of statistics to help demonstrate the condition of the female worker. Goldmark also very influential in laying the groundwork for transforming United States labour laws through her progressive activism.  They were instrumental in altering forever the way law was argued for the remainder of the 20th century and beyond through the collection of data, statistics, and the use of social sciences. Goldmark the author of Fatigue and Efficiency officially in 1912, a book published by the Russell Sage Foundation. This putting Louis Brandeis within a whisper of Skull and Bones in yet another way, and with his family having a long rabbinical line back to Bohemia, we look at Brandeis as one of the major architects of the 20th century chaos. His allegiances to Harvard Law, Phi Beta Kappa, and international Zionism, along with his position as “sage advisor to all” including counsel of fellow Phi Beta Kappa’s Woodrow Wilson, Felix Frankfurter, Walter Lippmann et al., place Brandeis in the center of all criminal activity.

The following authors were close friends, confidantes, and even housemates. All are considered ‘fathers of the Progressive movement’. All were accused of being radical reformers of society. All wrote key progressive manifestos while at the House of Truth, and the books were all were published at nearly the exact same time. They all vowed an allegiance to Theodore Roosevelt’s New Nationalism, a strong federal government, centered around preparedness and efficiency, to be run by the scientific expert. Undoubtedly, much of the authoring, organizing and coordination of their books, and the founding of The New Republic, would have happened while all cohabitating at the House of Truth.   

The New Nationalism was a campaign slogan and a collection of Roosevelt speeches published in 1910 inspired from Herbert Croly’s, The Promise of American Life, published in 1909.  These Roosevelt speeches serve as the catalyst for much of what develops in 1913, the House of Truth itself created to support Roosevelt’s Bull Moose campaign, and it is here, in these speeches, we see the first indications that America was preparing for war.

Using the introduction of Taylorism as a catalyst, the American private sector joins forces with the federal government, through their mutual interest in efficiency and preparedness.  Through the soft, facilitating hands of Bernard Baruch, we see the creation of the War Industries Board, the literal manufacture of a new corporatism, the first sightings of the American mass production industry, 20th Century American foreign policy, and the founding of American Fascism.

Roosevelt admitting in his speech, “combinations in industry … cannot be repealed … effort at prohibiting all combination has substantially failed. The way out lies, not in attempting to prevent such combinations, but in completely controlling them in the interest of public welfare.” 

Many then, as do now, point to Croly’s Promises as overtly advocating for Fascism and totalitarian government. Croly while living on Connecticut Avenue, just two minutes from Lippmann & Co., then followed up his tome manifesto by releasing Progressive Democracy in the year 1914.  It seems from this home in the Dupont neighbourhood of Northwest Washington was where the entire idea of Progressivism in America was dreamed up. 

in 

The New History, written by Progressive leader and Harvard BA MA grad, James Harvey Robinson, was more than just a book. It was, just as Roosevelt’s New Nationalism, the beginning of an entire social movement. Only this time, it was a complete rethink of how we look at history. And the social sciences once again take center stage. A selective view of the human past, excluding trivialities, covering more than the “traditional political, diplomatic, and military history”, involving speculative, “interpretation” that utilized “the relevant tools and concepts of the social studies, particularly anthropology, sociology, psychology, economics etc.” All of these more well known today as the social sciences. Just as Brandeis and Frankfurter, Robinson was known as a radical socialist reformer, helping found the New School for Social Research, and called upon historians “to embrace a New History allied to the latest social studies and able to promote a just social order.” 

In its introduction, after first acknowledging Theodore Roosevelt’s The New Nationalism and Woodrow Wilson’s The New Freedom, Harvey Wish identifies three other key figures, as equally important to their progressive cause, The New Jurisprudence of Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., The New Psychology of William James, and The New Education of John Dewey.

Wish revealing a rather interesting nucleus of social reformers all involved in the promotion of progress. Oliver Wendell Holmes often the most honoured of guests at the House of Truth while William James was an important personal influence on Walter Lippmann while at Harvard, and John Dewey helping Robinson, Charles Austin Beard, Alvin Saunders Johnson, and Thorsten Veblen, in founding the New School for Social Research. 

As we’ve explained in our previous article, The House of Truth and the Devil’s Agent, we see Holmes, along with Brandeis and Frankfurter experimenting with US Constitutional Law. These three Harvard PBK Supreme Court Justices saw the Constitution as did James T. Shotwell when authoring the International Labor Organization; or, as did Robinson and Beard when authoring their ‘new’ history; or, as did Sidney Webb and his Fabian cohorts, when forming the League of Nations; as an obstacle to their entire Progressive plan.

James Harvey Robinson

Thorstein Veblen

The Industrialized Man and the US Constitution were repugnant, and they all knew it.

“especially interesting in his [Robinson’s] reliance upon psychology, especially of the Behaviorist variety, and Freudian psychoanalytical thought.” Introduction xx, The New History

Hugo Munsterberg publishes Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, 1913. Munsterberg was an assistant to Wilhelm Wundt, the “father of experimental psychology”, and the first to establish a psychological laboratory at Leipzig University the same year William James did the same at Harvard. Leipzig became a hotbed for the burgeonoing field of what Wundt called physiological psychology. Famous Russian behaviourists, Vladimir Bekhterev and Ivan Pavlov studied under Wundt.

The list of men who studied under, or received their Ph.D from Wundt and then proceeded to establish experimental psychological laboratories of their own at all the major American universities is a long one and include some of the most recognizable names in, not only psychology, but philosophy and common education.

The following list includes all of the Wundtian disciples and the universities where they established psychological laboratories and periodicals, in a coordinated effort to legitimize another soft science. Not insignificantly, these men held the very first doctorates ever given to Americans:

Granville Stanley Hall (the father of developmental psychology, adolescent psychology) at Johns Hopkins and Clark University; James McKeen Cattell at the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University; Walter Dill Scott at Northwestern University; Charles Hubbard Judd at Yale, New York University, the University of Cincinnati and the University of Chicago; James Earl Russell at the University of Colorado and the Teacher’s College at Columbia University; James Mark Baldwin at the University of Toronto and Princeton Universities; Edward Bratford Titchener (Wundt’s English interpretor), at Cornell; William Lowe at Illinois University; Olin Templin at Kansas University; Harry Kirke Wolfe at the University of Nebraska; Andrew C Armstrong at Wesleyan University; Frank Angell at Cornell and Stanford; Edward Wheeler Scripture at Columbia University; Lightner Witner (the founder of the psychological clinic) at the University of Pennsylvania; George T.W. Patrick at the University of Iowa; Harlow Stearns Gale at the University of Minnesota; George Malcolm Stratton at the University of California Berkeley; and August Kirschmann at University of Toronto.

Munsterberg and his book, like the others before, serve as catalysts for an entire movement. Munsterberg met William James while in Paris, at the First International Conference on Physiological Psychology in 1889. James invited Munsterberg to accept a three year lecture contract at Harvard and would eventually hire the German to lead his new psychology laboratory. Munsterberg would stay much longer than anticipated and was very successful during his Harvard years, becoming the president of the American Psychological Association, president of the American Philosophical Association, a member of the Washington Academy and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Munsterberg would also become influential internationally as the organizer and vice-president of the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at the St. Louis World’s Fair of 1904, vice-president of the International Psychological Congress in Paris in 1900, and vice-president of the International Philosophical Congress at Heidelberg in 1907.  

His book, Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, published in 1913 is considered today as the very beginnings of industrial psychology. Munsterberg wrote to Frederick Winslow Taylor:

“Our aim is to sketch the outlines of a new science, which is to intermediate between the modern laboratory psychology and the problem of economics … the psychological experiment is systematically to be placed at the service of commerce and industry” pg. 3.

Munsterberg bringing together the two disciplines of Wundtian structuralism and James’ functionalism influencing the work of Edward Thorndike, one of the early pioneers of behaviourism who would then in turn inspire the work of a generation including: John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner. Watson describing psychology as an, “experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior.” And Skinner a widely cited social engineer famous for the Skinner Box, his zoological approach to humans and involvement in the Changing Image of Man Study. All of these men today considered the most influential psychologists and thinkers of the 20th Century.

An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States also published in 1913 by James Harvey Robinson’s close confidante and fellow father of the Progressive Movement Charles Beard. Beard wrote the iconoclastic book as a direct critique of the American Founding Fathers and helped to establish a new perspective on American history from its very origins.

Its publication “excited progressives who wished to curb the powers of the Supreme Court”. Interestingly, Beard a student of Robinson’s, arrived at Columbia direct from Oxford, and a Fabian socialist. Both these figures were extremely controversial during their time at Columbia. Both would leave under scandalous conditions to form the New School for Social Research. A Marxist organization as are all social research institutions.

Charles Beard

The New Statesman, a Fabian socialist rag was also created in the year 1913. And as we now know, the Fabians, especially Sidney Webb and George Bernard Shaw ever present at the Inter-Allied Labor Socialist meetings that directly led to the Covenant of the League of Nations. Shaw also present in the Weimar circles. And their work funding the Taylor Society as well as inspiring the entire Progressive movement.

Sidney Webb’s, Industrial Democracy, published in 1902, serving as a catalyst for the Progressive movement in both the UK and the US. Fabian socialism became the British Labor Party and is still very influential in the radical social reformation we see today. A very similar message being evoked today just as then, under similar conditions of war, social justice, and a belief in expertness. For those unfamiliar, the Fabian logo a wolf in sheep’s clothing and their motto, ‘molding the world closer to our hearts desire.’ A strategy they deliver through slow, methodical social change, rather than a more brutal, inhumane, military conquest.

The Great Society, published by another Fabian founding member, Graham Wallas, in 1914. A phrase picked up and used so much in American literary circles by his close personal friend Walter Lippmann that Lippmann himself is often cited as the very coiner of the term. The subtitle of Wallas’ most well known work being ‘a psychological analysis’ and the subject matter a further development of his Harvard speeches entitled Government 31 which Walter Lippmann was present for, in the spring of 1910. Wallas in his preface, addresses Lippmann directly from the London School of Economics , “in the hope that it may be of some help when you write that sequel to your Preface to Politics”, (a book not so coincidentally published also in the year 1913, and the follow up to which Wallas refers is Lippmann’s, Drift and Mastery), published in 1914. Drift and Mastery considering the socio-economic possibilities of a society caught in the “obvious drift of our time” while the government, “gropes for the conditions of mastery”:

Graham Wallas

 

The New Democracy, published in 1912, was Walter Weyl’s reinterpretation of what democracy means. Weyl very involved in the founding of The New Republic, and according to House of Truth biographer Brad Snyder, was the “third founding editor and principal political writer … a trained economist, freelance journalist.” Snyder calls, The New Democracy, “another important work of progressive political philosophy”.

Weyl’s book advocated for, as did all of their progressive books, a more centralized federal government, less attention on the rights of the individual, experimentation of the Constitution, and more government attention and money be paid towards social equality, social justice, and a reliance on the social science expert. The New Democracy, it should come as no surprise to anyone by now, was written in support of the 1912 presidential campaign of Theodore Roosevelt. The Bull Moose.

The New Republic founded in 1914 by Lippmann, Croly, Frankfurter, Weyl, Alvin Saunders Johnson, along with a four year promise of funding from Dorothy Paine Whitney and her husband, Willard Straight, a JP Morgan representative. Along with guidance from Billings Learned Hand and others connected to Harvard Law School. Their collective dream of scientific liberalism, “a liberalism centered in humanitarian and moral passion and one based in an ethos of scientific analysis”. Frankfurter very involved in the planning stages and:

“was listed as a trustee on the magazines first statement of ownership, attended meetings, and later wrote many signed and unsigned editorials on political and legal issues.” The House of Truth, Brad Snyder, pg. 91.

Croly described the magazine as “radically progressive”.

While officially created in the year 1914, The New Republic’s foundational framework was obviously constructed while they were all living at the House of Truth starting as early as 1911.  The key inhabitants are the key founding editors. Both the House of Truth and The New Republic are considered widely even today, as being extremely influential in changing the character and definition of liberalism from an interest in individual rights, towards a more centralized, scientifically controlled society.

The New Freedom, published in 1913, was a collated series of speeches Woodrow Wilson admits in the foreword to have never written. Both William Bayard Hale and Louis Brandeis, and Walter Lippmann were well-known speechwriters for Wilson. Within the pages of The New Freedom, ‘Wilson’ warns that “the old order changeth”, while setting a new course for the West, “we are in the presence of a new organization of society”. For the forensic historian, The New Freedom offers one of the most important historical admissions ever, shared below.

 

From the, not so coincidental publications of progressively minded books, all from the primary leaders of Progressivism to the constant promotion of a large, centralized government and a scientifically managed society. From the many admissions to it all being an experiment, to the connections to the oldest secret societies in America show conclusively, that whether it be a new spirit, a new democracy, a new republic, a new nationalism, a new jurisprudence, a new psychology, a new education, or a new freedom. The New Age was dawning on America.  

When one takes a deeper look, as we at Bulletproof have, its not hard to see the coordinated effort. It doesn’t take much convincing to say that the year 1913, like a photograph, captured a unique and important moment in history. A snapshot showing a deliberate infiltration of all aspects of Western society, those same aspects described some sixty years later, in The Changing Images of Man Study: mystical, cosmological, sociological, pedagogical or psychological, editorial, political and magical. This latest information, when put together with what our previous research has been uncovering, sure paints an impressive mosaic. An aggressively radical social reform movement, all delivered with a religious fervor and a promise to never look back.

 

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The Exilliteratur

 by Diego Garcia

From New York to the garden city paradise of Los Angeles they came, brought over as part of the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars programme from 1933 to 1945. Many of the Frankfurt School exiles landed in New York after first searching for refuge in Switzerland and Paris. The Frankfurt School members representing a small handful, were, as the other hundreds of emigres escaping the rise of German fascism, in search of a home.

Having been displaced from their influential positions within post World War One Weimar culture, they were assisted in their escape by “a small group of academics and philanthropists in New York City” who “contacted Stephen Duggan the director of the Institute of International Education, to discuss the possibility of creating an organization to assist German scholars fleeing to the United States … Felix Warburg and Alan Gregg served as advisors to the organizers and helped gain support from other refugee and philanthropic organizations.” The entire idea credited to Inquiry architect Alvin Saunders Johnson, co founder of the New School for Social Research. Felix Warburg widely known as the father of the Fed and Gregg a lifetime Rockefeller man.

Alfred E. Cohn, Bernard Flexner, Fred Stein, and Stephen Duggan formed the nucleus of the organization and Hiram Halle the lead funder with Rockefeller matching donations. Livingstone Farrand the original chairman before Duggan, Fred Stein the Treasurer, Cohn the Assistant Treasurer, Edward R. Murrow Assistant Secretary until 1935. Also part of the General Committee was American Roundtable member Frank Aydelotte of the Institute for Advanced Study; Thomas S. Baker, president of the Carnegie Institute of Technology; Henry Allen Moe of the Guggenheim Foundation and Oberlaender Trust; and Nelson P. Mead, Hertha Kraus, Charles J. Liebman, and Charles A. Biegelman. Originally, the Rockefeller funded program assisted the emigration of 303 German scholars but that programme was greatly expanded to include far more scholars and intellectuals from several European countries including Mussolini’s Italy. Many were also assisted in their emigration by the Julian Rosenwald Foundation. And for those following along who now recognize Norbert Weiner, it was him of all people who held considerable influence over which displaced foreign scholars were to be aided by the committee. See Future Perfect two part series.
Hiram Halle main financier of the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars program.
Alvin Saunders Johnson founder of the Emergency Committee, Inquiry architect and founder of the New School for Social Research with Columbia radicals Charles Beard and James Harvey Robinson.

The Emergency Committee In Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars at the long table to the right includes Felix Frankfurter, Isaiah Bowman, Alvin Saunders Johnson, Hiram Halle, and Hamilton Fish Armstrong. A banquet was held for German-speaking emigrants at the Waldorf Astoria in New York. Thomas and Heinrich Mann possibly sitting at table 21.

Director of the Frankfurt School, Max Horkheimer
Theodor Adorno, inventor of critical theory.
Charles Beard

The Frankfurt School, otherwise known officially as the Institute for Social Research was affiliated directly with the University of Frankfurt and based its philosophy on the German Idealist thinking of Marx, Hegel, and Freud, represented through a syntheses also to include the contributions of Immanuel Kant, Max Weber, George Simmel, and George Lukacs.

The Frankfurt School an early influential think-tank of the Weimar Republic and the dialectic of critical theory with all its components has its birth here – particularly with the work of Max Horkheimer and his close confidante Theodor Adorno. Horkheimer the Frankfurt School’s president, eventually making a deal with an all-too-willing-to-accommodate president of Columbia, Abbott Lawrence Lowell in bringing Marxist thought to one of the most prestigious Ivy League universities in America. They helped to continue the legacy of social and applied science research think-tanks started at the beginning of the twentieth century and would be forever known as the University in Exile.

Columbia serving as a fitting landing place in that it already housed The New School for Social Research, invented out of thin air over a decade earlier by Charles Beard, James Harvey Robinson, and Alvin Saunders Johnson. Johnson just so happens to be an early Inquiry architect and New Republic assistant editor during its formative years while Beard and Robinson, two of James T. Shotwell’s most favourite fellow faculty members at Columbia, were also highly influential members of the Progressive movement. These details important to understand in that there are significant connections again being made here between the Inquiry and later social science activity they inspired.

“So he [Alvin Saunders Johnson] and Robinson gathered together a group of friends and fellow scholars, all of whom were associated with the New Republic, where Johnson was working. Johnson began taking part, along with Beard, Robinson, and others, in weekly sessions planning for a new school.” The University in Exile and the Garden of Eden: Alvin Johnson and his rescue efforts for European Jews and Intellectuals, Gerald Steinacher, Brian Barmettler, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2013.


Eventually the University in Exile would be rebranded the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science, and when joined with The New School for Social Research (invented out of thin air by Charles Beard, James Harvey Robinson and Alvin Johnson in 1919), was shortened to The New School, today reduced to, New University. The New School for Social Research would combine with the Frankfurt intellectuals and today it has grown to include multiple universities and gained a major influence in the shaping of the Western intellectual. Other theorists of the Frankfurt school of thought brought over on Rockefeller dime reads like a who’s who. They include luminaries of the 20th century like the father of the New Left, Herbert Marcuse, who used critical theory on a massive scale with the help of activists Abbie Hoffmann and Angela Davis to fan the flames of 60’s counterculture. Kurt Lewin (pronounced Leveen) a modern pioneer in social organization and applied psychology, considered the founder of social psychology; Erich Fromm was influenced into Zionism by Nehemiah Anton Nobel (as of this writing no connections have been uncovered linking Nehemiah to the merchant of death Nobel family and source of the Nobel Peace Prize) but Fromm another massive figure in early to mid twentieth century post modernist philosophy

Father of the New Left, Herbert Marcuse.
Kurt Lewin.
Aldous Huxley
Huxley home under Hollywood sign
Bertolt Brecht

Going to California: The Political Salons and Aldous Huxley

Horkheimer attempted to associate with the University of California but was denied and the political salons of Salka Viertel and others became a viable alternative. It was while in exile in California that Horkheimer and Adorno wrote their most well-known work, The Dialectic of Enlightenment. A critical evaluation of American Life taken from the isolated perspective of a foreign exile, the founders of critical theory took this perspective when writing their criticisms of how the American culture industry aims to isolate its citizens, something these exiles, generally not able to speak English would have felt twofold.

Santa Monica, or, for that matter, Los Angeles in its entirety, was considered a suburb of Hollywood.”

Raymond Williams’ identification of the mythical exile as the producer of modernist art or literature makes a lot of sense when looking into the history. After its start in New York, “the exiles adopted a dialectical view of Los Angeles as a paradise in order to perceive it as the cityscape of modernism.” Bertold Brecht stating in his, Refugee Conversations that, “emigration is the best school of dialectics.” These modernist thinkers in many ways despised their time there, were appalled at the green gardens and often the unease or alienation they felt when confronted with the garden city of Los Angeles came out in their work. Who better to expose the shortcomings of American life than an émigré? The modernist movement in its entirety meant to create a “cultural rupture” within American society using the dialectic of enlightenment as an opposing force to American life.

Making mention often of California as a laboratory experiment, many scholars including Horkheimer, Adorno, Thomas Mann and Bertold Brecht moved into the Pacific Palisades neighbourhood of northwest Los Angeles, above Santa Monica Pier, not far from where the Rand Corporation would one day be. They gathered mostly at the home of émigré novelist, playwright, Lion Feuchtwanger and his famously beautiful Villa Aurora for political discussions.

 

One of the frequent guests at their political salon was Aldous Huxley. Huxley just living a few minutes drive above them in the Hollywood hills. This showing a wide influence of Huxley, not only was he a prominent figure in the intellectual philosophical circles, but the seminal inspiration for the creation of Esalen and the Human Potential Movement. The Doors taking their name from Huxley’s forever-life-changing, Doors of Perception were largely responsible for inspiring the 60’s counterculture. Huxley also deeply involved with MKultra programs leading us to believe at the very least he was a consultant however, US army major general Albert Stubblebine III goes one step futher in one of his final interviews before his death admitting to researcher Jan Irvin that Huxley was in fact the director of MKUltra. This may speak to why Sidney Gottlieb’s is the only name not redacted from the MKUltra papers. A red herring. The communications between Huxley and MKUltra doctors well known, and documented in several letters Huxley even trusting one of them, Humphrey Osmond, to administer Huxleys first hit of mescaline. 

This speaks to a comprehensive kind of influence Huxley wielded while living in the hills directly underneath the Hollywood sign. Looking down on a city he was deeply influencing on all levels but most importantly spiritually and psychologically. Again we see a demoralization program being instituted. And Huxley has his hands on the steering wheel. The New Age used as a weapon just as they would employ critical theory or the entering wedge.


There is substantial evidence that leads one to believe that this move was coordinated. The establishment of Marxist political and social science institutions in America starting with its first in 1906, The Rand School for Social and Political Science was shown during the raids of the First Red Scare to have malevolent anti American goals. Through social reform policies and cries of inequality. All of this about as repugnant in a free and open society as secrecy. The reasons for their arrival created out of circumstances of war they helped create, and German Idealism in American intellectual thought has now been so implanted as the relevant schools of Western thought that its nearly woven into the very fabric of American life. The use of dialectics and class struggle and appeals to our emotions obvious to those living in the 21st century. Only more overt have become their means. But it was not just writers and intellectuals that came over, there were artists, poets, sculptors and screenwriters, many creating their most famous works during their time in Los Angeles, influencing American Life in the way they were expelled from Germany for.

Thomas Mann home, 1150 North San Remo Dr., Pacific Palisades.

This a documented historical account agreed upon by any historian well versed on the subject. It being widely accepted that it was these people of the Weimar Hitler had identified as infiltrators of traditional German culture through and aimed to remove through, The Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service. These same people Hitler identified as “city-slicker literati” (asphaltliteraten) while proclaiming “the end of overblown Jewish intellectualism”, were welcomed with open arms in the United States and against better judgement put into incredibly sensitive areas of US intelligence (OSS, OWI) and prominent, influential positions within American academia, technology and so on.

 

“There are no statistics available for artists in other fields, but it is safe to call this one of the largest emigrations of writers and artists recorded in history,”

Ehrhard Bahr, Weimar on the Pacific, pg, 14.

Stay tuned for, The Huxter: Aldous Huxley in Los Angeles, where we will delve deeper into this very influential relationship Huxley seems to have with the entire state of California and several large social movements of the 60’s.

The Future Perfect Pt. 1 From the Paris Peace Conference…

By Diego Garcia

“I call this lecture ‘From Versailles to Cybernetics,’ naming the two historic events of the twentieth century. The word ‘cybernetics’ is familiar, is it not? But how many of you know what happened at Versailles in 1919?”

Gregory Bateson, lecture at the Two Worlds Symposium, Sacramento State College, April 21, 1966.

On August 1, 1917 as the world was reeling from the horrors of its very first war, Pope Benedict XV published, A Note to the Heads of All Belligerent Peoples. Benedict’s message, published in every major paper around the world, called for an end to the prolonged ‘massacre’. Benedict proposing ‘more moderate forms of counsel’, ‘calm deliberations’, and a collective move towards a ‘just and lasting peace’.   The Pope’s letter hoping to initiate a radical global shift away from the settling of disputes by the traditional, ‘material force of arms’, and towards a new international, ‘moral force of law’.

While the American president took almost a month to reply publicly, it was a much different story privately as three days later, on the third anniversary of Great Britain’s declaration of war on Germany, Felix Frankfurter, special counsel for the State Department, sent his now infamous memorandum from London recommending, “a bureau be established for the study and preparation of those questions which appear likely to be proposed at the Peace Conference.”  Wilson quickly forming an American bureau of international experts, hand-picked from the most prominent of Ivy League universities and charged with finding a solution to the traditional horrors of material war. A group soon to be known as the Inquiry. Their preparatory work beginning immediately in the back rooms of the New York Public Library and was to align with the work already being undertaken by the British and French.

Frankfurter, working hand in hand with the British and French foreign offices shows his involvement in the very earliest efforts to align American post war interests with that of her main allies. According to Inquiry historian Lawrence Gelfand, the Inquiry social engineers were creating more than a blueprint. They were building a foundation upon which the cyberneticians of the Macy Conferences would build an institution of mind control a generation later.

The Inquiry Intelligence Chiefs

“Treaty of Versailles was an attitudinal turning point.” Gregory Bateson

 

The Inquiry’s influence in Paris incalculable in that they are the authors of much of our modern-day one world monolith. The Inquiry representing the first ad hoc, interdisciplinary group of social science engineers, setting the stage in Paris for nothing less than what Bateson himself described as, “one of the great sell outs in the history of our civilization”.  Bateson describing Wilson as a “pathologically trusting man” suggesting him a front who allowed himself to be swept up in the current of progressive idealism. Wilson allowing himself to become emotively persuaded by private scholars and diplomats – ‘entering wedges’ – used as tools to usurp the State Department’s own presidential advisory authority in one of history’s most obvious, yet oddly obscure, coup d’états.

“The Peace Treaty was not to be a return to the old diplomacy, but the establishment of a new world order.” James T. Shotwell, Inquiry member and author of, At the Paris Peace Conference, pg. 13.

“For five years, there has been no free play of public opinion in the world. Confronted by the inexorable necessities of war, governments conscripted public opinion … They goose-stepped it. They taught it to stand at attention and salute … It sometimes seems that after the Armistice was signed, millions of Americans must have taken a vow that they would never again do any thinking for themselves. They were willing to die for their country, but not willing to think for it.” Frank I. Cobb, editor New York World, excerpt from Liberty and the News, pg. 8.

The Manufacturing of Public Consent and The Entering Wedge

The story of the Inquiry certainly offering extraordinary historical precedent to anyone willing to think for themselves today as the quotes above sounding ominously reminiscent of our modern-day fake news reality. Just as today we may be forever waiting for a return to normal, those living then died waiting for a promised end to all war. The contemporary Western democratic world not led by election or choice, but by persuasion.  All the men of the Inquiry, just as the members of the later Macy Conferences, were deliberately recruited for their political and social science backgrounds. Nearly every member with an Ivy League Master’s degree in the liberal arts, all holding an Atlanticist worldview, all with a cosmopolitan, liberally progressive social conscience, and all sharing a common belief that, the technical expert, in an ever more complex and changing world, was essential in the guidance of the Greater Society.  This technique of manufacturing the public’s consent towards predetermined State goals already proven effective in persuading America into a war they had previously voted against. An astonishing American volte face the result of an extraordinarily well coordinated State sponsored propaganda campaign. A psychological operation on the minds of the American public.

A State sponsored psychological operation Walter Lippmann, James T. Shotwell, Felix Frankfurter, and the father of propaganda, Edward Bernays, all participated in. They worked directly with zero degrees of separation for the newly minted government propaganda division, the Committee on Public Information. The CPI founded by Executive Order 2594 on April 13, 1917 and under the direction of George Creel, Robert Lansing (Secretary of State), Newton D. Baker (Secretary of War), and Josephus Daniels (Secretary of Navy). Modern American propaganda is born from the embers of the first world war and George Creel, Walter Lippmann, Edward Bernays, three faces of the Propagandists Mt. Rushmore were there, in Paris, working together, shaping public opinion on an international level.

So, as much as the credit for the invention of propaganda is often given to the likes of Joseph Goebbels, these three Americans, and most especially Lippmann and Bernays above all, became the actual masters of manufacturing consent. Interesting to note reader that both Lippmann’s ground-breaking Public Opinion (1922) and Bernays’, Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923), published within months of each other are currently enjoying their one-hundred-year anniversary. Together these two books set the direction of public relations for the next century and the manufacturing of consent a phrase as well known to the coiner of the term as it was to the pioneering cyberneticians of the 1940’s like Norbert Weiner and Gregory Bateson.  It can not be overstated, as this concept the foundation upon which the entire scheme of public manipulation was made possible.

If you’ve been following our previous work, you know Walter Lippmann as a founding member of the Inquiry and a Council on Foreign Relations lifetime board member. He is also largely lauded by professors of media studies as “the father of modern American journalism.” Lippmann inventing the term, “manufacture of consent” in his, Liberty and the News, published in the year immediately following his involvement at the Paris peace conference:  

“Everywhere to-day men must deal with questions more intricate than any church or school had prepared them to understand. Increasingly they know that they cannot understand them if the facts are not quickly and steadily available. Increasingly they are baffled because the facts are not available; and they are wondering whether government by consent can survive in a time when the manufacture of consent is an unregulated private enterprise pg. 4,5 Liberty and the News

“The Great Society had grown so furiously and to colossal dimensions by the application of technical knowledge. It was made by engineers who had learned to use exact measurements and quantitative analysis. It could not be governed, men began to discover, by men who thought deductively about rights and wrongs. It could be brought under human control only by the technic which had created it. Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion, Chapter 25, pg. 370, The Entering Wedge,  

The manufacturing of public consent by unregulated private enterprise certainly nothing new to us living in the 21st century – Lippmann and company’s, children of the future. The necessary business of steering public opinion towards a more noble, liberal vision of the future Lippmann often referred to throughout his career as, The Great Society. These social engineers had privately determined that an attitude change of the entire world was necessary while any public questioning of the scheme’s morality was not.  This great reset of one hundred years ago the technological schemata to which Lippmann dedicated his entire sixty-year career. Lippmann the owner of one of the longest syndicated columns in the history of journalism entitled, Today and Tomorrow. Note the very progressive sounding name, and the subtle absence of Yesterday. The memory hole founded and Lippmann one of those most influential in the steering of society towards a tomorrow we today now see quickly approaching on the horizon.

In chapter 25 of Public Opinion Lippmann writes of applying the social science technical expert as the entering wedge – Driven deliberately “between the private citizen and the vast environment in which he is entangled”. An eminence grise man of letters with no moral agency wielding facts and statistics as if they were weapons. Members of the Inquiry pioneers in these fields of facts, stats, and numbers, many becoming immensely effective in Statecraft and are to be considered the very forefathers to the cybernetics breakthrough to follow. The story of the Inquiry and that of the initial Macy Conferences nearly identical. Both groups were made of social scientists hired as special aides to assist in the scientific management of society. Experts in their respective fields of human study: sociology, history, economics, anthropology, human geography, psychology. Both groups of social and political scientists heavily funded by Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Ford foundations. Although separated by two decades both served similarly as effective counsel in the government of government, the understanding of understanding and in discovering the human use of human beings. Here it becomes very important to take note of the definitions of both cybernetics and, government:

government: guvernere: to govern; to steer or control as a pilot would a ship.
mens or mentis: the mind.

cybernetics: from the Greek kubernetes: to steer as would the helmsman of a ship; a governor.

The Inquiry and the League of Nations

The Inquiry worked with several interests in forging the Covenant of the League of Nations. As we discuss these groups below we begin to uncover overlapping memberships between each of these groups and with several elite social clubs. These secretive relationships, made in the Gentlemen’s Clubs of Washington and New York at places like: the Century Club, the Metropolitan Club, the Cosmopolitan Club, and the broader, more internationally minded, Pilgrims Society, make clear just where foreign policy is first developed.  These underreported memberships also prominent throughout the entire American Delegation, the Big Four Nations, and thus, the entire Peace Conference itself. This seemingly systemic unwillingness on the behalf of the media to report such important information a gross negligence of duty casting shade on every historians and journalist since.

2.The Bryce Group: founded in London, 1914. Named after its chairman, the Scottish liberal and 1st Viscount, James Bryce (privy council to the Queen, Royal Society fellow, British Academy, House of Lords). Bryce, the Ambassador to the United States and the author of the widely read, The American Commonwealth in 1888. Bryce aided in the book’s popularity throughout American academic circles by his close friendship with American aristocracy, including one of the most supportive in Harvard phi beta kappa president, Charles W. Eliot. 

Bryce’s, The American Commonwealth important in the promotion of history told through an Anglo-American worldview and played an important role in a long awaited British and American alliance.  Bryce, it should be noted, was the actual author of the very report that provoked the first world war in the first-place by publishing, The Committee on Alleged German Outrages – now seen as a highly suspect, largely fictitious example of black propaganda. The Bryce Group inspirational in the creation of The League of Nations Society. James Bryce and his committee, while willing the war into reality on made up field reports, were conveniently present to pick up the pieces. Problem, reaction, solution.

1st Viscount James Bryce

2. The League to Enforce Peace: founded in Philadelphia, 1915, based on Theodore Roosevelt’s much earlier call for an international “League of Peace”. Roosevelt himself phi beta kappa and a Freemason. Roosevelt’s very protégé William Howard Taft, was elected President of the League to Enforce Peace. Taft, the 27th president of the United States after Roosevelt and the son of the very founder of Skull and Bones, also tapped phi beta kappa, also a freemason.

Another founding member of the League to Enforce Peace was Elihu Root, Skull and Bones, phi beta kappa, Secretary of War at the turn of the century under both McKinley and Roosevelt. Root modernized the military, was a founder of the Preparedness movement and was president of Carnegie Endowment for World Peace.

Another founder of the LEP was Henry Stimson, strangely enough also Skull and Bones, also phi beta kappa, also a founder of the Preparedness Movement, and the most proficient Secretary of War holding portfolio under Taft, FDR, Truman, and Herbert Hoover.

Richard T. Ely, another founder of the LEP and very influential Progressive Era leader, an advocate for Preparedness and “father of land economics.”

LEP notables include founder and chairman of their executive committee, A. Lawrence Lowell. Lowell president of Harvard, and phi beta kappaAlexander Graham Bell and Zionist delegate in Paris, Rabbi Stephen Wise also founders.

* Note how both the Pilgrims and the CFR have the word ‘ubique’, meaning everywhere, in their logo.

3. The League of Nations Union: founded in New York 1918, a merger between the League of Free Nations Association and the League of Nations Society. Here we see a confluence of leaders from both sides of the Atlantic merging into one entity led by its first president, British Foreign Office Secretary Sir Edward Grey. The League of Nations Society founded by the founder of the National Birth Control Association, Margery Spring-Rice and its membership filled with authors who were writing books, pamphlets and other literature promoting the ideas of the Bryce Group. Within this milieu we have identified as members of the Executive Committee an interesting array of representatives of those organizations most in control of our society today.

The ‘apostle of internationalism’ Stephen Duggan. Harvard Law School handler of Frankfurter, Brandeis and Lippmann, Billings Learned Hand. JP Morgan counsel Thomas W. Lamont. Zionist leaders and fellow Harvard Law alumni, Felix Frankfurter and Julian Mack. Inquiry members David Hunter Miller, Edward Slosson, Edwin Gay and Alvin Johnson all members. Frank Walsh’s inclusion interesting in that he was chosen to head the failed investigation (the Walsh Commission), into the unlawful and inhumane labor relation practices of the tax-exempt foundations. The League of Nations Union was ultimately under the leadership of the Rhodes Round Table movement as its president was Round Table member Sir Edward Grey. Grey working with Lord Milner, Lionel Curtis, and Philip Kerr. All these men present in Paris 1919 and were prominent in the League’s creation.

4. 1917 Club founded in 1917 among the political salons of Soho London. Founded by Leonard Woolf and the British intelligence cryptographer, Oliver Strachey. Named after the February 1917 Bolshevik revolution. Membership was largely made up of Labour Party members, Liberal Party members of the Union of Democratic Control, and the Bloomsbury Set. And within the Bloomsbury Set we find the Cambridge Apostles. Making for an interesting collection of artists, authors, painters, and intellectuals indeed. Beginning with Leonard’s famous wife, one of the most influential modernist writers of the 20th century, Adeline Virginia Woolf.

Other notables include: Aldous Huxley, H.G. Wells, Ramsay MacDonald and Lord Walter Rothschild. The British economist John Maynard Keynes, Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, and Ludwig Wittgenstein all members as Cambridge Apostles. Russell and Wittgenstein considered two of the most influential of 20th century philosophers. Keynes one of the most influential economists an advocate of the Welfare State.

To find those most responsible for this international scheme we are forced to peel back several layers of the established historical narrative. There is no denying the complicit involvement in the creation of the League of Nations by the Taft, Grey, Woolf, and Bryce groups, but publicly it was Woodrow Wilson’s innermost circle of advisors that led the charge. Wilson’s advisory group of specially appointed political and social scientists, private professors, international lawyers and economists, while usurping in importance the president’s own administration, were intermingling with and serving the interests of the House of Morgan, Wall Street financers, American aristocrats, US Court Justices, Zionist world leaders, and members of the burgeoning US military intelligence community. And it is from this ominous circle of friends we find those most responsible for the writing of the Fourteen Points published on January 8, 1918, and its final draft, the Covenant of the League of Nations, signed on January 10, 1920.

Note the Inter-Allied Conferences were chaired by Sidney Webb and George Bernard Shaw an executive member. Also note on the same document how several delegates were confused as to why the word ‘socialist’ was included on their credentials. This is why we refer to these meetings as the Inter-Allied Socialist and Labor Conferences. These documents can be found in their entirety in our House of Applied Knowledge above.

A closer look revealing that it is here, within these obscure groups, and not in Paris, that we find the actual launch of the League. We see uncovered fraternal affiliations that transcend party affiliation, woven together through years of friendship into an incredibly eclectic mosaic.  All these groups openly pacifist, but to varying degrees. All were considered progressives united in their search for a collective security.

A quick look through the memberships list of these various groups reveals distinct cross over as not only the most influential politicians, statesmen, diplomats, and scholars of our modern history are explicit in their involvement, so too their necessary compliment of popular Western authors, writers, poets, and painters.

Here we see how societal control and the manipulation of the masses really works. All these well-known social reformers working in parallel and employing all forms of propaganda in the manufacturing of the public’s consent as America transitioned from the last days of the Gilded Age to the bright promise of modernity and the establishment of a new world order.

There is no denying the complicit involvement in the creation of the League of Nations by the Taft, Grey, Woolf, and Bryce groups, but publicly it was Woodrow Wilson’s innermost circle of advisors that led the charge.

Wilson’s advisory group of specially appointed political and social scientists, private professors, international lawyers and economists, while usurping in importance the president’s own administration, were intermingling with and serving the interests of, not our lady liberty or the Constitution of the United States, but the financial interests of the House of Morgan, Wall Street financers, American aristocrats, US Court Justices, Zionist world leaders, and members of the burgeoning US military intelligence community.

The very first experts. And it is from this ominous circle of friends we find those most responsible for the writing of the Fourteen Points published on January 8, 1918, and its final draft titled the Covenant of the League of Nations, signed on January 10, 1920.

Louis Dembitz Brandeis

Felix Frankfurter

Wilson’s Inquiry, like Taft’s League to Enforce Peace, was predominantly made up of men of honours tapped phi beta kappa. Woodrow Wilson, Louis Brandeis, Walter Lippmann, Felix Frankfurter all primary authors of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, all secretly PBK. As were Taft, Stimson, and Root. Even Wilson’s personal physician, Cary Grayson had to be phi beta kappa.

Also prominent in the writing of the League was Inquiry members Isaiah Bowman, and David Hunter Miller, Secretary of War Newton D. Baker, and (acording to Bateson, but not yet substantiated), chairman of the Committee on Public Information, George Creel.  

So while, in the one hundred years following the events of Paris, the legacy of the Fourteen Points remains largely attached to Wilson, research herein shows that much credit must go to those surrounding him – especially those founders of the Efficiency and Preparedness movements.

Frankfurter living up to his moniker here as the ‘kochleffel‘ or ‘the stirring spoon’, by being the link connecting the New Republic/House of Truth Set with the Taft group.

And perhaps there was no more influential voice in the Progressive movement than that of the ‘sage advisor to all’, Frankfurter’s half-brother, half-father, mentor, and Supreme Court Associate Justice Louis Brandeis.

Brandeis very influential in persuading Wilson to create from out of executive order the Federal Reserve and the Federal Trade Commission. Brandeis was the soft touch, guiding hand while his protégé, the Judge Advocate General Felix Frankfurter, the heavy-handed iron fist representative of State justice.

Frankfurter supervising courts-martial cases for the War Department during the Great War on behalf of the government.  Both Brandeis and Frankfurter massive in the implementation of the first international world order and both central in the creation of the nation of Israel.

In fact, Frankfurter, according to eyewitnesses had his foot in every delegation in Paris and, acting as a Brandeis conduit, was one of the conferences most influential figures. Frankfurter parlaying the key personal relationships made earlier at the House of Truth into world changing international policy in Paris.

The relationships forged at the House of Truth a decade prior proving priceless in Paris as Eustace Percy and Loring C. Christie, former flat mates of Frankfurter and Lippmann, held key positions within the British and Canadian Delegations. Percy, a diplomat and close advisor to, not only British Prime Minister David Lloyd George in Paris, but former chief assistant to the British Ambassador, 1st Viscount Bryce and British Foreign Minister and Round Table member Sir Edward Grey in the British Foreign Office. Percy also staying at the House while accompanying Lord Balfour’s foreign mission to Washington in 1917 to discuss past secret imperial treaties mere days after America announced their inclusion in the war.

The Balfour Mission while in Washington stayed at Breckinridge Long’s mansion at 2829 16th St NW Washington, near the House of Truth. Loring C. Christie, another roommate at the House was another Harvard Law alum, editor-in-chief of the Harvard Law Review and graduated alongside Frankfurter.

Christie, despite being a Canadian, worked as an assistant to another House of Truth resident, Winfred Denison in the Department of Justice under Stimson. In fact Frankfurter, Denison and Christie all employed by the Taft government under Stimson years before Paris. Loring C. Christie was, during the peace talks, the personal legal advisor to Canadian Prime Minister, Robert Borden. The entire House of Truth fraternity massive in Paris.

Teddy Roosevelt helping to close this Progressive circle in that, besides being the reason for the creation of the House of Truth, Roosevelt an essential figure in the growth of internationalism.

Roosevelt himself recommending the 1907 meetings in the Hague and speaking of the idea of an international League of Peace as early as the Spanish American War before the turn of the century. Roosevelt also phi beta kappa, also a freemason and perhaps the founding father of Progressivism, running the very first progressive platform in 1912 called the Bull Moose Party.

1727 19th Street NW Washington, The House of Truth
The four original founding residents of the House of Truth: left to right clockwise: Winfred Denison, Robert Grosvenor Valentine (owner), Felix Frankfurter, and Loring C. Christie.
Eustace Percy

The Century Club

So, when one interested in such things looks past the surface reasoning we witness an undeniable deep secret society association between all of these shapers of the League that transcends party affiliation but not social status.  An additional, but no less important layer of secrecy is revealed when we see that all three members of the 1912 presidential election: Wilson, Taft, and Roosevelt, were all members of The Century Association. Other notable Century Club members include the same milieu: Walter Lippmann, Henry Stimson, Elihu Root, Colonel Edward Mandel House, Thomas W. Lamont, Newton D. Baker, Billings Learned Hand, and Inquiry members Sidney Mezes, Charles Seymour, and James T. Shotwell. Just to name a few.  This list, while not even fully unpacked goes a long way to making sense of our society today. The three successive presidencies of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson representing a twenty-year period to begin the 20st century in which presidents and parties would change but not their progressive mission. While the helmsman may have changed, the general direction and destination of the ship remained the same. The Great Society.

The Pilgrims Society

Incredibly, an even more amazing third level of secrecy is uncovered that proves without a doubt a shared interest within these groups for an international order. When one peruses the members list of the Pilgrims Society, the international conspiracy becomes obvious: James Bryce, Elihu Root, Henry Stimson, Robert Cecil, Arthur Balfour, Lord Rothschild, J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller Sr., John D. Rockefeller Jr., Andrew Carnegie, John W. Davis, Charles Dawes, Chauncey Depew, John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, Jacob H. Schiff, Richard T. Ely, Nicholas Murray Butler, Andrew Mellon, King Charles III and his wife, the recently diseased, Queen Elizabeth II.

The Fabians Society

All the planning may have officially culminated in Paris, but the work was done in London at meetings held during the war at the Inter-Allied Socialist Labor Conferences held in London from 1915 to September of 1918. The British Labor Party and the Fabians heavily represented at the London based Inter-Allied meetings most notably by two very founders of the Fabian movement, George Bernard Shaw and Sidney Webb. Webb head of the Procedure Committee, a member of the Permanent Inter-Allied Executive Committee, and a chairman of the final meetings in September of 1918. When tracing the creation of the League back to source, it is in these London labor and socialist meetings and not the gilded golden hall of mirrors at the Palace of Versailles that the League was first formalized.  And it is here, during these far more obscure meetings, that we see an amazing confluence of interests.

These socialist meetings, clearly dominated by a syndicate of internationally minded men brought together the Fabians, the British Labor Party, the American Progressive movement, with the leaders of international labor. It amazes this historian to know that it was this handful of liberally progressive men and woman who were chosen to shape the League. A far cry from what we are told in school. If we are told of this incredibly important epoch at all. Intellectuals, popular authors, famous poets and painters joined with Wall Street financiers, Supreme Court judges, tax-free foundations, Ivy League scholars, the modern US intelligence community, international Zionism, through secret society memberships in clubs like the Cambridge Apostles, Phi Beta Kappa, Skull and Bones fraternity, the Gentlemen’s Clubs of New York and Washington, Freemasonry, and the Pilgrims Society and more.

Many of these people are the biggest names in their field of work. Many of them pioneers and founders of the professions that most and a vast majority bonded by common fraternal brotherhoods.

Conclusion

What happened at the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 – to answer Gregory Bateson’s question – is more than just the signing of a treaty.  The meetings in Paris profoundly shifted world hegemony westward. And when the Paris peace conference of 1919 is taken in its broadest sense, we can clearly see, without a doubt, that this is where nearly everything we struggle to navigate today found its modern origins. Its where the US formally becomes the new world post graduate understudy to the old-world British imperial emeritus.  Its where America makes its grand debut on the world stage as the preeminent international power. Its where, in less than a year, the American president went from pacifist to interventionalist to internationalist.  And in less than six months, Wilson went from declaring war on Germany to secretly planning a coordinated exit strategy. Almost as if the war itself was a cog of something bigger turning.

When looking at the promise of Paris through the established mainstream narrative nothing about it seems to make sense. Despite claiming Paris was the end to war, war is now perpetual and world peace remains, as it always has, an unattainable ideal.  But, when overlapping the circles of these secret organizations we all of a sudden find commonality. This the modern beginnings to the networking of power that dominates our society today.  As we overlap those shared membership circles we find within the vesica pisces, an exclusive group of men, almost as if the new world order can be distilled down to its purity. Found within the vesica pisces those common to all circles and at the center of these clubs we find the men most influential and responsible for our present-day conundrum. Those engineers of the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles named above are now preserved for future historians and the general public to consider.

We look forward to publishing the follow up article, The Future Perfect Part 2 the Cybernetics Revolution soon. In it we make amazing historical connections between the founders of the Inquiry and the cyberneticians of the 1940’s.  A definite trail of evidence connecting the “two most historic events of the 20th century” almost as if one was the natural transgression of the other.

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The Inquiry in Paris Part 2

Many members of the Inquiry would parlay their work with the Inquiry into illustrious international careers later working with the largest American foundations in the specific areas of social research and applied science. Many would go on to preside over major American institutions, reaching key leadership positions in all aspects critical to the management of society. They were instrumental in creating entire fields of discipline we now simply take for granted. Bowman integral in the International Map of the World Project that has directly led to our present day global surveillance grid would later be involved in the Manhattan Project as president of Johns Hopkins University. Shotwell, working for Carnegie Endowment was, even according to his Columbia University alma mater, “present at, indeed instrumental in, the creation of some of the most important international institutions of the twentieth century.” Two other inquiry members, William Curtis Farabee and ethnographer Roland Burrage Dixon were both presidents of the American Anthropological Association, Farabee’s work primarily in human genetic research and Dixon on the racial history of man. Leonard Porter Ayres a very early Inquiry recruit, headed the American Statistical Association, Ayres an acting chairman within the Skull and Bones executive arm Russell Sage directing voluminous studies on the casualties of war, “backward children”, and the lazy of society. His large-scale statistical projects on behalf of Skull and Bones, very reminiscent of the Fabian social reform ideas published by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, and George Bernard Shaw.

 

Inquiry member Charles Homer Haskins was a child protégé teaching at Harvard at the age of seventeen and the first academic renaissance and medieval historian in the United States, he worked for years with the American Historical Association, a corporation of university teachers of history, before becoming its president. Haskins was a leading member of the Committee of Seven, where he set standards for college admission and national public school history curriculum and was the chair of the first American Council of Learned Societies, bringing together a nationwide network of historians and was Dean of the Graduate School in the Arts and Sciences from 1908 to 1924. In Paris he was a key personal advisor to president Wilson. He was an American member of the Commission on Belgian and Danish affairs and helped arrange three historically contentious and economically important areas along the German French border in Alsace Lorraine, and the Ruhr and Saar Valleys. 

 

Allyn Abbott Young, the president of the American Statistical Association, the American Economic Association and the London School of Economics wielded a wide circle of influence similar to Haskins. Mark Jefferson was a leading pioneer in American cartography at the time of his hiring and was hired by his former student Isaiah Bowman as chief of Geography and Cartography for the Inquiry. Jefferson today is still considered one of the most influential of all American geographers. All of these men of the Inquiry sharing the same progressive, socialist school of thought of a future society of peace achieved through an international, technical expertise.

 

With the creation of the Inquiry was founded the very profession of scholarly counsel of government from out of the necessity of war. The Treaty of Versailles, despite all of its liberal promises, proven now to be less the end of all war and more the start of the next. The conference was Prompting Pilgrim Society member and American delegation member Frederick C. Howe to state,

“economic forces moved the conference, like players about a chess-board. Boundary-lines were shifted to include harbors, copper, oil, mineral resources. Races were split, natural demarcations ignored. The imperialist interests that had kept the world on edge for thirty years before the war were making a killing…The British Admiralty wanted oil; it had talked oil for years. British maritime prescience saw that oil was the fuel of to-morrow. The French steel trust wanted a grip on coal and iron oar, to gain command of the Continent and strip Germany of her war-making power. Munition-makers were busy. They were getting ready for the next war.”

 

Nothing short of American sponsored global chaos the exact kind of which Wilson first protested against and then himself became, when refuting the Popes call to belligerents for a “peace without victory”.  Wilson, doubling down, went for the German throat stating in response, “the object of this war is to deliver the free peoples of the world from a vast military establishment which secretly planned to dominate the world” further promising to the world that America would “deliver its blow fiercely and quickly”. But one hundred years later, the History of Propaganda asks, who possesses this “vast military establishment”? Who is it that the free peoples of the world need to be freed from? And, who is it that has consistently, in the over one hundred years since exhibited the behaviour indicative of a foreign policy bent on world dominance?  Today there remains only one clear answer to that question.

 

In Paris we see the interests of many factions aligning that had nothing to do with the ending of world wars or making the world safe for democracy. Atlanticist interests of the Round Table Group aligning with that of the Internationalist. The Edwardian era imperialist and Old World French colonial interests aligning with that of the Wilsonian Progressive with that of the Zionist, And despite their perceived differences, these men mostly members of the private Century Club, or the Coefficients Dining Club, and the Pilgrims Society. The long ago made plans of private elite society culminating at The Palace at Versailles, in the Hall of Mirrors. 

 

Many of the men on both the American and British delegations having shared these less public allegiances that extend well beyond that of delegation or even national loyalty. They are the motor that drives the Anglophile narrative, unfettered from party affiliation and government bureaucracy who’s work was “about bringing Britain and the US together as the two ‘great manufacturers and traders of the world, and therefore the great advocates of international peace.”(3) Nearly the entire American and British delegations were made up of members and friends of one or several of these secret societies and gentleman’s dining clubs. This the elephant in the room of American life. A small coterie of elites rule this world through the coveting of money, influence and power. Pilgrims founder Charles Beresford believed in an, “‘Anglo-Saxon patriotism’ which was in addition to our domestic patriotism and our Imperial or American patriotism'”.

 

This group of elites with anglophile dreams heavily represented in Paris. The conference in fact largely steered by them. When we identify those most influential at the conference they call come from these secretive private clubs: Elihu Root, Henry Stimson, James Bryce, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Edward Grey, Philip Kerr, Thomas W. Lamont, Lord Alfred Milner, Lord Northcliffe, Frank Lyon Polk, Winston Churchill, John Foster and Allen Dulles, and Henry White were all influential in the creation of the League.  But the Pilgrim’s Society membership also includes Wall Street legend JP Morgan who famously loaned hundreds of millions of dollars to the French, British and Russian armies and was represented in Paris to get his money back. American royalty well represented within these society clubs, the Aldrich’s, the Astor’s, the Vanderbilt’s, the Whitney’s even Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, Prince Charles, Prince and Andrew, are all members. Making for a very influential membership list first inspired by its most honourary member, Cecil John Rhodes. 

 

Here we see the very obvious fascist takeover of America. Corporations are by nature expansionist and align well with a foreign policy with the same initiatives and the think tanks created then meant to steer society as a helmsman would a ship. The not-for-profit think tank designed to transcend political party, their whole creation meant to be bipartisan and apolitical, to gather members of all parties, to transcend the quagmire of the voting process and to get beyond government bureaucracy. The introduction of these institutions left little doubt to those watching then what would eventually evolve out of such an ill thought-out plan. We witness its results in real time today as the CFR and RIIA both drive narratives domestic and abroad, admitted as an authority by the very politicians they direct.  An effort by our social engineers to form societal order out of chaos using dialectics was the plan. 

 

So, in the end, as the Big Four walked the Place de Concorde to the admiration of the media and the headlines of peace spread around the earth heralding Wilson, Lloyd George, and French Prime Minister Clemenceau as the new fathers of victory, these lesser-known men of the Inquiry, hidden in the shadow work of statecraft, far from the glare of flash cameras, intellectual scholars responsible for creating a shadow government within the Woodrow Wilson administration that has existed ever since, emerge to the modern day historian as the prime movers in Paris, the men of the Inquiry without a doubt, the most influential men of action at modern history’s most influential of peace conferences.

Century Association logo. All three presidents of the 1912 election were Centurions. Two of which considered founding fathers of the Progressive Era.

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