Winged Father Time unveils Truth, who is dressed in white and rests her foot on a globe, symbolising the Earth from which she has sprung. With her left hand, Truth unmasks Deceit, while with her right she gestures to the four cardinal virtues: Prudence, holding a snake; Temperance, carrying a water jug; Justice, with sword and scales; and Fortitude, who rests her elbow on a lion. The subject is based on the classical motto, ‘Truth is the daughter of Time’, meaning that truth becomes apparent through the passage of time.

How did our society become so dependent on the opinion of the expert?

This one of the most important question of our time and the previous nine articles in the Rise of the Expert series, have been an attempt to answer that question. To better understand how an idea seemingly so antagonistic to a democratic society can be so prevalent today Bulletproof Publishers went back to ‘the experts’ modern beginnings. Our historical study starts in the Progressive Era with Graham Wallas’ The Great Society, Sidney Webb’s, Industrial Democracy, and Herbert Croly’s, The Promise of American Life, and of course, Frederick Winslow Taylor’s, The Principles of Scientific Management. And at the center there was one man, who also happened to be a member of the US supreme court, a man so dominant in the rise of the expert, so comprehensive in his authority, that we have now declared him nothing less than “the maker of our modern-day social contract”. Our society today largely governed by the technical expert and yet, Louis Dembitz Brandeis, remains completely unknown to the public-at-large.

Louis’ father, Adolph Brandeis.
Jacob Frank

In Brandeis Part 1: The Architect of the New Freedom, we showed how Louis Brandeis’ father Adolph arrived in America with a Rothschild agent riding shotgun with deliberate designs on opening up the Midwest of America. We also showed how Louis was born into a long familial line of radical, antinomian, social behaviour. His family were followers of Sabbatean Frankism, centered on the leadership of the Jewish Messiah claimant Jacob Frank, where religious norms were rejected and the transgression of as many moral boundaries as possible was encouraged.

Needless to say, we were stopped in our tracks, in the first steps into his life. How can a US Supreme Court justice be trusted when coming from such extremely immoral beginnings? We then showed how a very young Louis graduated Harvard Law School with a mark so high it wasn’t bettered for eighty years and how even early in his life, Louis was considered among his Harvard Law classmates, as the possessor of an extraordinarily analytical mind and a charismatic organizer of the people.

We learned that Brandeis founded the Harvard Law School Association and one of the western world’s most influential periodicals of expert opinion, the Harvard Law Review. As the title of part one suggested, Brandeis was considered, “the architect of the New Freedom”, setting president Wilson’s entire presidential platform in perhaps the most curious of all presidential campaigns, 1912. Brandeis writing speeches for Wilson and persuading the president, through the promise of regulated competition, into founding the ultimate scientific, technical experts, the Administrative State. The Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Trade Commission the two centerpieces to this “new freedom”, Brandeis creating many government bureaucratic agencies and each headed by its own expert resembling what Lippmann described in his Great Society as intelligence bureaus directed by entering wedges. To be a sort of expertise between the ordinary citizen and the vast environment in which he is entangled.

The departmentalization of civilian interests not much different in its meaning and purpose than military compartmentalization. An entire society told to stand at ease and put on a need-to-know basis.

We were once again blown away while researching parts 2 and 5, when finding out that Brandeis was known in his day as the “people’s lawyer” and not only did he coin the term ‘scientific management’ but he set the standard for our modern eight-hours-per-day, five-days-a-week work schedule. Brandeis, inspired by the Fabian idea of Industrial Democracy, helped establish common ground between capital and labour through “democratizing” the shop floor, creating the preferred shop, funneling everyone into the union, and the entire nation’s industry followed.

Brandeis primary in bringing together two burgeoning technologies, industrial relations and scientific management, and bringing together the worker and boss by authoring the standard-setting, Protocol of Peace, and in doing so, initiating everyone into a life on the plantation, inserting the labour union leader as the plantation manager, entering wedge. The scientific expert between man and his labour. Brandeis coining perhaps the most accurately descriptive term of our modern, scientifically-governed society and Taylorism, as it is known today, while not widely known, is considered one of the most influential ‘isms’ of the 20th century(!)                      (See the fasces?)

Brandeis instrumental in the popularizing of cultural plurality, or, dual loyalty, and establishing a correlation between Americanism and Zionism. He was also involved in the founding of Zionist secret societies on the campus of Harvard, the Parushim and the Menorah Societies. Brandeis’ daughter marrying 

We fell clear to the ground, nearly losing all feeling in our legs when finding out while researching parts 3 and 4, that, on top of everything else already said, Brandeis became the leader of the entire international Zionist movement by being elected chairman in 1914 of the Provisional Executive Committee on General Zionist Affairs.  Brandeis masterfully parlaying his Zionist influence on the US president, American Jewry, and Christian Dispensationalists into support for the founding of Israel. And there wasn’t enough voltage in the world to electroshock us back to coherence when finding out Brandeis was central to both the drafting of the Balfour Declaration and the construction of the earliest settlements in Palestine, founding the very country of Israel(!)

Amazing to learn that it was through the hands of Brandeis, that passed the many drafts of the Declaration and it was only upon Brandeis’ final approval that the Balfour Declaration was finally made official – while in the presence of only British Foreign Secretary, Arthur Balfour, his secretary Eustace Percy, and Brandeis’ lieutenant, Felix Frankfurter.

The sounds of truth bombs dropping were heard upon the discovery that three of the four in the room at the consummation of the document most responsible for creation of Israel were actually House of Truth residents(!) Our brains simply melted when finding out Brandeis was also closely working with the House of Rothschild in the actual construction of infrastructure for early Jewish settlements in Palestine through Brandeis’, Palestine Economic Corporation, and Baron Rothschild’s, Palestine Jewish Colonization Association(!)

In parts 6 and 7 we were toe-tagged and left for dead labelled invalids, when finding out Brandeis was central to the founding of our entire modern system of law, something called, sociological jurisprudence.  Brandeis identified as its main practitioner through the creation of his landmark way of arguing a case, not on legal merit, but on social science facts and statistics revered even today as the, “Brandeis Brief”.  Brandeis, along with Dean of Harvard Law School and 33rd degree Master Mason of Massachusetts Lodge, Nathan Roscoe Pound, establish an entirely new, socially scientific way to argue law, what Pound called a, “wholly new creed”, law through social activism. This idea to apply the social scientist to law, we learned was borrowed directly from Prussian reform thinkers of the German Historical School and brought back to America by her very first PhD’s, the very founders of field of sociology, established first at the University of Nebraska, then the University of Chicago and Johns Hopkins University by: Edward Alsworth Ross, George Elliott Howard, Albion Woodbury Small, Frank Giddings, William Graham Sumner, Lester Frank Ward and others.  

In part 8, we discussed how the rise of the university system established the academic expert by, first commandeering Indian land through seizure and violence, as part of the infamous but still glorified Morrill Land Grant Acts of 1862 and 1890 and then secondly, by founding the Association of American Universities, the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, and the American Association of University Professors. We showed how our institutions of higher learning have been from the beginning meant to create a two-tiered caste society, fostering the rise of a network of peer-reviewed, tenured academic experts stretching across the nation, acting as one giant governing hand of scholasticism, an idea once again borrowed from 18th and early 19th century Prussian radical social reform. This then revealing that our entire system of higher learning and our entire K-12 compulsory system were schemes adopted from the Prussian Reformation(!)

It is in this article we pointed to the coordinated shifting of the seven liberal arts from the compulsory common school level, where everyone was introduced to it, to the highest levels of education where only those meant for management were to see it. The corporatization of education. What we learned was the liberal arts themselves were the defining characteristic of the university. This shift placing the most effective and personally empowering knowledge just beyond the reach of normal K-12 schooling. Creating a split society of conscious and unconscious.

Nathan Roscoe Pound
Justin Smith Morrill

In Part 9, The Rise of Internationalism, Brandeis makes an astounding reappearance as the first initiate of the Inquiry, the precursor to the Council on Foreign Relations, Brandeis given the responsibility by Wilson in establishing the scholar, academic expert as the leading voice of American foreign policy(!) Our research showing both Brandeis and Lippmann, and to a considerably lesser degree Col. Edward House, considered predecessors to Kissinger and Brzezinski.

And once again, the House of Truth playing a considerable role as, Herbert Croly, Walter Lippmann, Felix Frankfurter all assisted Brandeis, each played primary leading roles. Further research since, from the Louisville University Brandeis School of Law, has confirmed without question what we’ve been revealing all along, that Brandeis was counsel to the Advisory Commission of the Council on National Defense, helping establish the future of U.S. foreign policy and was the “informal advisor to Col. E. M. House.” Brandeis created Israel while founding modern U.S. foreign policy, setting the stage for the American Century of neverending war.

This also placing the man once thought of as the leading advisor to Wilson, Colonel Edward Mandell House, is now considered a lesser influential player than once thought, his presence here acting more as a blind to the entire Brandeisian charade. 


In our research for part 10, we further investigated the knowledge removed from common compulsory education asking, what makes this knowledge so important?  And if its removal has been determined by the social engineers so important in our collective subjugation, wouldn’t it then make sense that its regaining popularity would be most helpful in our present state of great awakening?

Charlotte Iserbyt wrote extensively in her over 700 page, The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America (1999) of the importance of the liberal arts and discusses at length how they were purposely removed. Iserbyt served as a senior policy advisor in the Office of Educational Research and Improvement under Reagan. She too identified Wundtian experimental psychology, the Rockefeller founded General Education Board and Carnegie’s  Foundation for the Advancement of Education as major contributing factors.

John Taylor Gatto, author of Dumbing Us Down (1992) and the Underground History of American Education (2000), also exposes the Prussian reformation and rightly cites Johann Gottlieb Fichte and his, Addresses to the German Nation(1806), as the origins of our Western education system.

The little North German state of Prussia had been described as “an army with a country,” “a perpetual armed camp,” “a gigantic penal institution.” The Underground History of American Education, Gatto.

“Scientific management, or Taylorism, had four characteristics designed to make the worker ‘an interchangeable part of an interchangeable machine making interchangeable parts’ … 1) A mechanically controlled work pace; 2) The repetition of simple motions; 3) Tools and technique selected for the worker; 4) Only superficial attention is asked from the worker, just enough to keep up with the moving line. The connection of all to school procedure is apparent.” The Underground History of American Education, John Taylor Gatto; see also By the Sweat of Thy Brow, Melvin Kranzberg and Joseph Gies.

“Anyone interested in the truth will be shocked by the way American social engineers have systematically gone about destroying the intellect of millions of America children for the purpose of leading the American people into a socialist world government controlled by behavioural and social scientists.” Pg. 2, Foreword, The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America.

Writing in Iserbyt’s Deliberate Dumbing Down of America, Thomas A. Kelly, PhD, states:
“The Effective School Report twenty-first century will, for the majority of youth, be workforce training. Thus, the need for Pavlovian/ Skinnerian methodology based on operant conditioning which, in essence, is at the heart of the above dehumanizing definition of education. This “sowing of the seeds” through redefinition will reap the death of traditional, liberal arts education through the advent of mastery learning, outcome-based education, and direct instruction—all of which will be performance-based and behaviorist.”

“Kinsey and Bloom, as scientists, were involved in the breaking down of man (taxonomizing) into units of behavior which Skinner, as a behaviorist, could identify, measure and change. This breaking down or “deconstructing of Man” was intended to separate man from his God-given, freedom-providing identity. This opened the door to the study of methods to control man and society: enter Skinner, representing the Behaviorist School of the non-science “science” of psychology …

Bloom changed the focus of education from a general, liberal arts education which benefited man as a whole to a narrow training which would be based on the behavioral psychologists’ determination of what changes in “thoughts, feelings, and actions” would be desirable and, perhaps, necessary for the benefit of society as a whole.” Pg. 29, The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America, Charlotte Iserbyt.

“The first reason we study the liberal arts has to do with freedom. That freedom is an integral part of the liberal arts is borne out of [C.S.] Lewis’s observation that ‘liberal comes of course from the Latin, liber, and means free’ …

… Such an education makes one free, according to Lewis, because it transforms the pupil from ‘an unregenerate little bundle of appetites’ into ‘the good man and the good citizen’ …

… We act most human when we are reasonable, both in thought and deed. Animals, on the other hand, act wholly out of appetite. When hungry, they eat; when tired, they rest. Man is different. Rather than follow our appetites blindly we can be deliberate about what we do and when we do it. The ability to rule ourselves frees us from the tyranny of our appetites, and the liberal arts disciplines this self-rule. In other words, this sort of education teaches us to be most fully human and thereby, to fulfill our human duties, both public and private …

… Lewis contrasts liberal arts education with what he calls ‘vocational training,’ the sort that prepares one for employment. Such training, he writes, ‘aims at making not a good man but a good banker, a good electrician. . . or a good surgeon.’ Lewis does admit the importance of such training — for we cannot do without bankers and electricians and surgeons — but the danger, as he sees it, is the pursuit of training at the expense of education. ‘If education is beaten by training, civilization dies,’ he writes, for the ‘lesson of history’ is that ‘civilization is a rarity, attained with difficulty and easily lost’ …

… It is the liberal arts, not vocational training, that preserves civilization by producing reasonable men and responsible citizens….

A third reason we study the liberal arts is because it is simply our nature and duty. Man has a natural thirst for knowledge of the Good, the True, and the Beautiful, and men and women of the past have made great sacrifices to pursue it ….”… Truly, we ignore the liberal arts only at our peril. Without them we will find ourselves increasingly unable to preserve a civilized society, to escape from the errors and prejudices of our day, and to struggle in the arena of ideas” pg. 140, The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America, Iserbyt.

“Traditional liberal arts being replaced by vocational training, school to work programs … The bottom line is this: ‘apprenticeship’ is ‘workforce training.’ Skipping over traditional academic high school and college subjects, or watering down a liberal arts college education to accommodate its ‘application’ to a workplace setting, constitute the “deliberate dumbing down” of homeschoolers.” Pg. 437, The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America, Iserbyt

The Seven Liberal Arts

The Trivium, meaning ‘the meeting place of three roads” and is made up of three sources of knowledge: grammar: the art of combining symbols; logic: the art of thinking; and rhetoric: the art of communication.

The Trivium along with the Quadrivium: arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy form the seven liberal arts. Arithmetic considered in itself a whole, and music a study of the harmony between numbers, geometry and astronomy explore magnitude without motion and with motion respectively.

Each liberal art constitutes both a field of knowledge and a technique to acquire that knowledge. This is not a separation of arts and sciences but each liberal art is both a science and an art in that there is both something to do(art) and something to know(science). The Trivium is the organon or tool of all knowledge on all levels because grammar, logic, and rhetoric are tools of communication. It is used when reading, writing, speaking or listening. A liberal arts education is the act of working productively within the tension of theory and practice.

The liberal arts differs from servitude or utilitarian(carpentry, masonry, plumbing, printing, banking) and the seven fine arts( architecture, instrumental music, sculpture, painting, literature, drama, and dance) in that liberal arts don’t necessarily need a tool, they are within, or intransitive. Meaning that the art begins and ends within the individual. Whereas servitude arts such as carpentry and fine arts are transitive. The art flows from the individual to an object and the individual can be paid for what is created. The liberal arts remain the best preparation for work in the professional schools of medicine, law, engineering and is the basis.

The Trivium identifies Classes of Goods and their various values and its not hard to see why it is this knowledge was problematic to the social engineers. The first class of goods are the valuable, those that are not only valued for their own sake but which increase the intrinsic value of their possessor, like: virtue, knowledge, health, grace. Useful goods are those in which one can use to acquire other valuable goods like food, medicine, money, books. The third class of goods, the least valuable to the sovereignty of the rugged individual are the pleasurable goods, valued for their own sake because of the pleasure they bring their possessor. In this class we find most of modern society lost within their materialistic cleavages and Bentham inspired hedonistic pursuits of pleasure and the strict avoidance of pain.

The Trivium breaks the process of learning down into an interesting list of categories and again, its not hard to see why its removal was a must. The first level of communication, that of phonetics prescribes how to combine sounds so as to form spoken words correctly. Not much different than the grunts and groans of animals. Second aspect to communication is spelling, the knowledge of how to combine letters so as to form words correctly. Grammar prescribes how to combine words so as to form sentences correctly while rhetoric prescribes how to combine sentences into paragraphs, paragraphs into compositions having unity, coherence and the desired emphasis as well as clarity, force and beauty. Logic prescribes how to form concepts into judgements and judgements into syllogisms and chains of reasoning into the Truth.

Logic is the master art of the arts because it directs the very art of reasoning which directs all other acts. Correctness is the norm of spelling, phonetics and grammar. Effectiveness is the norm of rhetoric. Without these skills we aren’t able to ask the who, what, why, where, when, and how. We are unable to deductively form correct thoughts and then effectively communicate them into the minds of others.

The last thing the engineers want you doing is forming judgements through chains of reasoning and putting together two thoughts to form definite conclusions.

They want you hooked on phonics, the lowest form of communication, so you aren’t getting hooked on spelling, grammar, rhetoric and logic, because soon enough you’ll get hooked on knowledge and then power. They don’t want you understanding concepts and bigger pictures for obvious reasons. They don’t want you recognizing symbols and identifying errors in their spelling. They certainly don’t want you acting on your gut instinct or using your five senses, they don’t want you trusting your own eyes, ears, and thoughts, they don’t want you even knowing there was a knowledge taken from you because if you did they wouldn’t be able to use it for themselves against you and continue the status quo.

According to the Trivium, truth is the norm of logic. Correctness in thinking is the normal means to reach the truth, which is the conformity of thought with things as they are – in reality. This process of knowing things as they are apparently the best antidote against psychosis.

The intellect is perfected by five intellectual virtues: Understanding is the intuitive grasp of first principles. Wisdom is knowledge of ultimate causes. Prudence is right reason of something to be done. Science is knowledge of proximate causes. Art is right reason about something to be made. The combination of these five virtues of knowledge leads us directly to taking our power back. With no army, no violence. The well-developed individual is a perfect antidote to the tyrannical government.

The Trivium method emphasizes the proper function of language and the means of communication. It recognizes that words are symbols. The true nature of language to communicate ‘volition, emotion, and thoughts through the proper construction of symbols’. And while Skinner, Pavlov, Bloom, Thorndike, Kinsey, and Albert Bourla today, study us as if we are animals, the Trivium notes the distinctive difference between human and animal, it celebrates our ability to articulate through the human voice more than the rudimentary grunts and groans of an irrational animal.

The Trivium teaches us to first gain a precept through the collective senses that then forms the proper image within our mind that we then turn into a concept and correctly translate from one mind to the other. A more important skill to obtain today, within this political environment, there may not be.

A concept an abstraction created by intellect through our sensuous memory, the common or central or synthesizing sense, forming intuitiveness and instinct.

This type of conceptual learning obviously problematic to the social engineers, our ability to comprehend concepts, to see things in more clearer resolution, to see the big picture, are all natural traits of the human they want removed as Fichte admitted human in the soil, before it even had a chance to sprout, flourish and eventually bloom. This a large reason for the disappearance of Greek and Latin in that they both allow us to gain conceptual knowledge through the Classics, we see through allegory, metaphor, and analogy, and gain knowledge of the etymological origins of our symbols.

We are told Latin is as dead as the Truth is as dead as the free-market is as dead as freewill. The disappearance of Greek, has led ones mind to conjure up far different images of Homer than that of the epics, The Odyssey or, The Iliad.

Many today aware of the spells being cast by our authorities and this is how they do it, in the literal spelling and grammar. As the Trivium teaches, the origins of all conflict begin in the definition of terms.

We can only come to terms with each other when both parties have clearly defined the meanings of the words being transferred. Why most people are fooled by today’s definitions of liberalism, capitalism, global warming, and climate change. What defines a super storm? What is your definition of liberalism? Do you mean capitalism or monopoly capitalism or laissez-faire free market?

Do you mean the natural course of changing weather on earth over millennia or are you talking about the theory that humans are irresponsibly heating up the planet so fast that only more tax money will stop the already inevitable cataclysmic ending of humanity?

Conveniently, the Trivium also informs us of the logical fallacy.

Who knew there were categories of lies? I’d heard of the ad hominem and the red herring and was already well aware of the mistake one can make following the bandwagon, but to know there was an entire catalog of lies and they were mostly used by politicians and lawyers was a significant moment in the authors life.

As it turns out, the main purpose of logical fallacy is to distract, to keep one from staying focused on the subject at hand. Interesting to remember that a sentence is made up of a subject and logical fallacy is often employed by literally ‘changing the subject.’ 

The world at large nearly completely ignorant of the varied ways our politicians and authorities lie and distract through the argumentum ad hominem, the argumentum ad populum or the red herring. Name calling, ridicule, and appeals to popularity and celebrity the method operandi of all mainstream authority and none of it adequate criteria when determining the truth from fiction.

This knowledge found in the Kabbalah and Freemasonry and essential in the creation of the Association of American Universities. When used properly, like any technology, it works to liberate the human soul of all suffering, but when used to control others, to use others as a means to an ends, it always ends badly.  Followers of Kabbalah and Freemasonry alike adhere to the ‘secret’ principles of the liberal arts firstly because it raises a well-developed individual. Freemasons, nearly always, are well-spoken, well-dressed, well-behaved, contributing members of society, they are social influencers and organizers, just as you’ll find in academia. Freemasonry has coopted well-meaning men and women just as the university system has. In many ways, as we’ve shown, they are one and the same, synonymous of one another.

These international organizations driven by the same occulted technology have conspired to create a pseudo world that has blinded the general public. The engineers creating our society today largely devoid of such empowering knowledge as found in the liberal arts, choosing instead to reserve it for themselves to create our modern day knowledge gap in not just society, but secret society, and high society.

“Masonic teaching enthusiastically encourages its students to contemplate and learn from the seven Liberal Arts” Richardson Masonic Lodge #1214.

Far from our intended image of man we have been taken off course, set off on a tangent, we as a human race have been completely distracted by pleasurable goods not the valuable ones. Those occulting knowledge have been able to pull a world of lies over us to blind us from the truth … we now have a chance to turn the tide.

The grand strategists do not want, under any circumstances, you knowing when you are being lied to, that is the last thing they want. By creating a degree of disinterestedness, or apathy, or blissful ignorance, in the general public today, they by default create a degree of vulnerability within the masses directly proportionate to how trustworthy that authority is. Within that disproportionately large degree of vulnerability we find much of our modern world. Instead of this empowering knowledge being the starting line (K-12 compulsory school system), they made it the finish line (highest of higher education Master of Arts) of a race nearly no one ever even knows they are in.

Most of the world lost between the two horns of a false dilemma with no idea they are even caught, as comfortable as livestock, happy with their binary thoughts of black and white, right and wrong, good and evil, blurping animalistic phonetic grunts and groans of: fake news, debunked, safe and effective, tin foil hat, meh, and laughing emoticons. They are stricken with a disability to discern for themselves, they lack a sophistication of argument, and often possess a cartoon worldview, for they, as generations prior, have grown fat and lazy, having only stood up for the right to sit down – a demographic of television watchers far too reliant for far too long on one of the most overused yet effective logical fallacies of all, the opinion of the expert. 

In the center Philosophy is enthroned as queen, ethics, logic, and physics adorn her golden crown. Socrates and Plato are seated at her feet. All wisdom comes from God, Only the wise can do what they will. Seven streams of water flow from philosophy, representing the seven liberal arts, three representing the Trivium and four representing the Quadrivium. the divine Philosophy, govern all things wisely; I lay out seven arts which are subordinate to me. At the top we have grammar, armed with a rod to signify the strict discipline found within the study of grammar and a book adorned with jewels. To the right rhetoric, equipped with a stylus and tablets covered in wax signifying the care taken in preparing discourse. Dialectic holds the head of a barking dog indicating the unending shouts provoked during disputation. Music plays a cithara, and a lira lay close. Arithmetic counting on a threaded rope, Geometry standing with compass and a surveying rod, and Astronomy studies the stars. The wide circle states, “What it discovers is remembered · Philosophy investigates the secrets of the elements and all things”, and, “Philosophy teaches arts by seven branches · It puts it in writing, in order to convey it to the students.”

Outside the philosophical circle of women, beyond the realm of the seven liberal arts muses and their Queen Philosophy sit four men. Poets, mage, or magicians, the men work at desks writing words beyond the influence of philosophy and the seven liberal arts. Echoing Socrates (Plato) from the Republic, Herrad regards their work as dangerous, frivolous, and impure. The black birdlike creatures seem to be whispering ideas into their ears. Taken by their fantasies some of the mage can no longer write and appear lost in their dreams.
“The poets and magicians who are moved by the impure spirit. Those moved by impure spirits teach magic and write poems, that is, lying fictions.”