“‘progressive’ is what we like, and the word ‘new,’ be it the New Nationalism of Roosevelt, the New Freedom of Wilson, or the New Socialism of the syndicalists.” Introduction xviii, xix Drift and Mastery, Walter LippmannDuring our forensic investigation into the...
1913 Dawn of The New Age
“‘progressive’ is what we like, and the word ‘new,’ be it the New Nationalism of Roosevelt, the New Freedom of Wilson, or the New Socialism of the syndicalists.”
Introduction xviii, xix Drift and Mastery, Walter Lippmann
During our forensic investigation into the Progressive Era we came upon an interesting year. The extraordinary events of the year 1913 unveil a year so profound in its influence that we contend there was no other year in the twentieth century more responsible for our modern-day condition. It was while discussing the Wilson administration (1912 – 1920), that we first noticed Wilson’s extraordinary list of accomplishments while in his first full year in office. Even more intriguing was how each of these founding fathers of Progressivism, Wilson included, all wrote books, not only during the president’s first term, but in his first year, all using the word ‘new’ in their titles. Even the subject matter of each book was the same, all of them carrying the same moral message, promoting as their leader Theodore Roosevelt, and as their scheme, a more centralized, scientifically technical, progressive government built on the two pillars of Progressivism: Efficiency and Preparedness.
Herein, we describe the extraordinary events of the year 1913. We detail the institutions, foundations, and organizations established by these same progressives, along with the philosophies, ideologies and concepts they helped impress into the minds of America through their literature, social status, and political importance in one of the most radical reforms of the human being in recorded world history.
The Federal Reserve
The Twelve Federal Reserve Banks, all of a restrained, stripped, starved, or even brutal neo-classical architectural styling.
Rome University, 1938
Zeppelinfield, Germany, 1938
Woodrow Wilson inaugurated as President of the United States on the 4th of March and the rest is history. Wilson’s time as president opened the flood gates to all kinds of policy that today still stand as obvious representatives of those institutions most destructive to our Western world. Wilson himself considered a father of Progressivism, and was closely advised by preeminent Progressive leaders like Louis Dembitz Brandeis, Felix Frankfurter, and Walter Lippmann. Listed below are the many examples of the radical social reforms made – just in Wilson’s first twelve months in office.
The Federal Reserve founded. This private organization, based on usury and speculation, lending money to the Unites States at interest, may be the most profoundly responsible for our modern day enslavement. Created two days before Christmas in 1913 as an answer to financial panics, the Federal Reserve has done little in the over one hundred years since its creation to ameliorate financial crashes from occurring on the regular. The Great Depression itself occurring only a decade and a half after the Fed’s founding.
Every generation since has suffered, and the abhorrently high national debts of all Western countries can look to the centralization of the banking industry as the main culprit. The Fed, created under deep secrecy, involving all of the usual suspects including the man who some even call its architect, Louis Dembitz Brandeis.
Which reminds us to mention how the new world order can be seen in the very architecture of the Federal Reserve building itself. The Eccles Building was constructed, as were many government buildings in the 1930s under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in the Restrained, or Starved, or Strained Neoclassical style preferred by all totalitarian leaders of the twentieth century including: Stalin, Lenin, Mussolini, Hitler, FDR and Woodrow Wilson. A style in which all ornamentation, imagination, and beauty was removed, the sheer stone resembling the coldness of later brutalism, dominant and intimidating, the gargantuanism of government.
Harry S. Truman, U.S. State Department
Robert F. Kennedy, U.S. Justice Department
The Principles of Scientific Management, written by Frederick Winslow Taylor, was first distributed only to engineers and factory owners in 1911, but officially republished to the public in 1913. Both editions with a fasces dead center, pressed right into the very fabric. The management of society through science now known simply as Taylorism, and the concept is largely considered today as, “the most influential ‘ism’ of the twentieth century”. Taylor’s Principles the most influential book of the movement and a pillar at the very center of the Progressive movement (1900-1914).
The venerable Louis Brandeis wasn’t just involved in the creation of the Fed, he is the one coining the term ‘scientific management’ and popularizing the book through his famous Muller v. Oregon case. The case garnered headlines across the nation, and Brandeis didn’t waste the opportunity. He was the first to argue law almost solely on sociological and scientific data, to the near exclusion of citations, and traditional legal argument. With help from his sister-in-law, Josephine Goldmark, his ‘Brandeis Brief’ altered case law forever and served as a legal landmark that replaced traditional practice of law. Brandeis credited Taylor’s book for the basis of his argument, and elevated the popularity of industrial efficiency across the United States. Brandeis, Frankfurter, and Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. – three Supreme Court Justices – along with the rest of the House of Truth crowd, were very important in changing the attitude of the Supreme Court.
Historical documents showing that a worldwide Taylor Society was born to promote Taylorism, originally funded by the Fabian Society(!) An early member was Marxist Walter Polakov, who worked with Taylor, Henry Gantt, Frank Gilbreth, and Harrington Emerson in bringing these ideas to Russia and around the world. Polokov working directly with the US Emergency Fleet Corporation as the US entered the Great War. Lenin, Stalin, and Trotsky all publicly acknowledged the importance of Taylorism.
“Lenin was a political revolutionary untrained in the intracies of factory management. However, he was aware of the writings of the father of scientific management, Frederick W. Taylor, long before the Revolution. Taylor’s work had been translated into Russian and Lenin hoped to find in this model an answer for Russian industry, as the United States had found one at the turn of the twentieth century.” Daniel A. Wren, University of Oklahoma, Scientific Management in the U.S.S.R.
The Principles translated into many languages. Mu Xiangyue, a Shanghai native graduate of scientific agriculture at the University of Illinois and Texas A&M translated it into Chinese and was very popular among a variety of governments for obvious reasons: “This collective interest in ‘new’ Management extended beyond personnel issues to embrace organizational design, industrial psychology, and the Industrial Rationalization movement around the world.”
“In the past the man has been first; in the future the system must be first.” pg. 7.
Taylor is named only an honourary member at the initial meeting of the Society that would eventually bear his name, showing an already relegated position within the movement. (See bulletin). The main question at the first meeting was of labour unions. Taylor in an address to the Society talked of a meeting he had with Frankfurter and Valentine in which they appear adversarial regarding the role of the union. Taylor speaking from a position sympathetic to the business owners stating the two obstacles forbidding them from joining with the employees was:
“their demand for a restricted output and their demand for collective bargaining. There is not a union in the United States which does not demand these two things. It is an economic fact that increased wages and general greater prosperity can come only with increased output. The unions fight exactly that principle. They must agree upon increased output before we can co-operate with them. Mr. Frankfurter argued that an entirely new set of union men are coming in. They may be coming but we are not willing to acknowledge that they are here. A union of workmen who will not restrict output is what we want.”
Their literature also revealing a future meeting in February of 1915 was to be held in New Haven Connecticut, inside the Mason Laboratory, at Yale University, on “cost accounting”. And a dinner to be held at, of all places, the Taft Hotel. Interesting topic to be discussed at the home of the executive arm of Skull and Bones, The Russell Sage Foundation. And it all took place at a hotel named after son of the founder of Skull and Bones, William Howard Taft. Taylor would be dead by March 1915, and in November of 1916, Valentine would die of a heart attack while having a late dinner at Delmonico’s with Felix Frankfurter, Emory Buckner, Sam Rosensohn, and Harvard psychiatrist and criminologist, Herman Adler. Taylor was only fifty-nine, while Valentine was only forty-four years young.
“Valentine’s business thrived because he had the courage to implement part of the ‘Social Program’ that he and Frankfurter had outlined on the living room floor of the House of Truth when they had ‘discovered the center of the universe.'” Brad Snyder, The House of Truth
Marcel Duchamp’s, Nude Descending A Staircase
Duchamp’s work resembling that of earlier chronophotography by Etienne-Jules Marey, Man Walking, 1890-91
Nude in a Wood, Henri Matisse
Luxury II, Henri Matisse
The New Spirit. also know as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, begins with the 1913 Armory Show. Promoted as part of a larger movement known, not so coincidentally as, The New Spirit, obscures traditional early American art style by infusing new, experimental styles of European avant-garde, Fauvism, Cubism, Impressionism, and abstract expressionism. We see very clearly the first attempt at altering the image of the human figure. The Changing Images of Man. This the introduction of modern art to America. Guests included on the three-city tour were contemporary legends of the art world: Cezanne, Duchamp, Manet, Matisse, Monet, Renoir, Surat, and Vincent Van Gogh.
The shows were organized by the American Association of Painters and Sculptors and one of the founding members of the AAPS just so happens to be Gutzon Borglum, a frequent guest at the House of Truth, where he designed Mt. Rushmore on the dining room table.
Marcel Duchamp’s, Nude Descending a Staircase, created a stir merely from its title, showing something resembling the shape of a human body, somewhere between cubist and futurist, the figure leaves no indication as to its gender, or whether it is even human. This painting and several others caused controversy, the imagery of Nude Descending Staircase, when looking closely, show the dynamic fragmentation of the human figure, the knees bent, the body leaning back, the only discernible body parts hidden behind cylinder and abstraction, as the androgynous futuristic figure progressively descends rather than ascends a set of stairs.
“What contributed to the interest provoked by the canvas was its title. One just doesn’t do a nude woman coming down the stairs … it seemed scandalous.” Marcel Duchamp in a late interview seems to point to the figure being female however admits that the name was what may have had everyone interested.
The Armory Shows proved to be scandalous as America was not accustomed to the radical new European modernist art movement. Henri Matisse’s distortion of the human form facing much backlash, and provide yet another example of the soft social science techniques being applied to American society. Their stated mission even was to “lead the public taste in art, rather than follow it.” Sounding much like the agenda of the Metaphysical Club’s infusion of philosophy a decade earlier.
Borglum’s own artistic themes centered of course around heroic images of US nationalism and the aesthetic variation of Bull Moose patriotism. Interesting to note that this infusion of Expressionist art just ahead of its infiltration of Hollywood through the film noir genre – as discussed in our previous article, Hidden in the Shadow of the Sun. The delay between the two, almost as if they were waiting for the technology of the motion picture to catch up before they could apply it upon society. The dynamic effect of art in motion far more powerful than the expressionists traditional ability to just paint a still picture.
Borglum was a very active member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, raised in Howard Lodge #35, New York City, on June 10, 1904, and serving as its Worshipful Master 1910–11.
In 1915, he was appointed Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Denmark near the Grand Lodge of New York. He received his Scottish Rite Degrees in the New York City Consistory on October 25, 1907. He was close personal friends of Theodore Roosevelt, a fellow well-known Mason, and very active during the 1912 US presidential election campaign as an organizer and member of the Bull Moose Party.
“The scholar and research professor emeritus H. Wayne Morgan considers the ‘conflict between modern and traditional art’ in the early twentieth century to be ‘one of the best known episodes in American cultural history.’ The International Exhibition of Modern Art, the most important art exhibition ever held in the United States, served as the catalyst for this controversy.'”
“The origins of the show lie in the emergence of progressive groups and independent exhibitions in the early twentieth century (with significant French precedents), which challenged the aesthetic ideals, exclusionary policies, and authority of the National Academy of Design, while expanding exhibition and sales opportunities, enhancing public knowledge, and enlarging audiences for contemporary art.” Avis Berman, As National as the National Biscuit Company; The Academy, the Critics, and the Armory Show, Rave Reviews American Art and Its Critics, 1826-1925. New York National Academy of Design, pg. 131
The Blue Nude, Henri Matisse
Imposition of a federal income tax on February 3 by the US government signals the first time a permanent, collective system of taxation is applied in the United States.
Federal Trade Commission founded. While the first speech on the House floor advocating its creation was in February of 1912, and the Act itself was created officially in 1914, the obvious leg work primarily accomplished in the time in between. The FTC an authority on interstate trade set alight by the 1911 decision to break Standard Oil’s monopoly. The conclusions drawn some one hundred years later are clear, these organizations doing very little to curtail wrongdoing while the challenges and issues have only grown more and more profound. The FTC obviously doing very little to prevent monopolization, or Morganization, as we see Standard Oil’s dominance continue unabated, even aided in enlarging their already massive fortune by the ruling, becoming even more absolute only under new titles like: Exxon, Mobil, Esso, and BP. Louis Brandeis also very involved in the creation of the Federal Trade Commission.
Henry Ford installs the moving-chassis assembly line in October of 1913, sparking the era of mass production and the automobile era all at once. Otherwise known as progressive assembly, the introduction of the assembly line was a revolutionary improvement over the previous semi-automated production line system. Assembly lines for the first time, created an enormous advantage for the employer, the non-stop conveyance system diminished the workforce to a mathematical equation, each detail of the process perfected, allowing the employer to set the pace, minimize labour, and maximize profits. The Highland Park Factory in Michigan shrinking the manufacture time of an automobile from more than 12 hours to less than 2. The first significant joining of man and machine, a connecting of the human hand with the control arm, like two fingers nearly touching, reminiscent of, The Creation of Adam.
This not without significance from another entirely different perspective, in that, A Brave New World, was set in the year 632 a.f. (after Ford). Ford considered God, and the roll out of the first automobile, marked as the very first day of their utopian calendar. Ford also referring to himself as Freud when speaking of psychological matters.
The Rockefeller Foundation goes public on March 14, 1913, following the acceptance of its charter. This one 501C, not-for-profit the most responsible Foundation of our enslavement, formed from another private, yet very public sounding, General Education Board. Inspired by an initial $100 million donation from John D. Rockefeller. The Rockefeller Foundation funding the creation of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Inquiry, the Cybernetics Revolution, Alfred Kinsey’s sex research, the Princeton Radio Research Project, and our entire Western education, agricultural, and medical industries. Rockefeller today stands, along side The Federal Reserve, and the “sage advisor to all”, Louis Brandeis, as possible public enemy number one. Rockefeller involvement so omniscient in our lives today, and their many interlocking affiliations so well documented throughout the century by hundreds of researchers, little needs to be said of their involvement in the Dawn of The New Age.
The first Suffrage March on March 3, 1913. One day before Wilson’s inauguration, the Suffragette movement officially gets under way.
A key member of the Woman’s movement was Josephine Goldmark, the aforementioned sister-in-law to Louis Brandeis. Along with other members of the progressive National Consumers League, Goldmark gathered for the Brandeis case, over one hundred pages of statistics to help demonstrate the condition of the female worker. Goldmark also very influential in laying the groundwork for transforming United States labour laws through her progressive activism. They were instrumental in altering forever the way law was argued for the remainder of the 20th century and beyond through the collection of data, statistics, and the use of social sciences. Goldmark the author of Fatigue and Efficiency officially in 1912, a book published by the Russell Sage Foundation. This putting Louis Brandeis within a whisper of Skull and Bones in yet another way, and with his family having a long rabbinical line back to Bohemia, we look at Brandeis as one of the major architects of the 20th century chaos. His allegiances to Harvard Law, Phi Beta Kappa, and international Zionism, along with his position as “sage advisor to all” including counsel of fellow Phi Beta Kappa’s Woodrow Wilson, Felix Frankfurter, Walter Lippmann et al., place Brandeis in the center of all criminal activity.
The following authors were close friends, confidantes, and even housemates. All are considered ‘fathers of the Progressive movement’. All were accused of being radical reformers of society. All wrote key progressive manifestos while at the House of Truth, and the books were all were published at nearly the exact same time. They all vowed an allegiance to Theodore Roosevelt’s New Nationalism, a strong federal government, centered around preparedness and efficiency, to be run by the scientific expert. Undoubtedly, much of the authoring, organizing and coordination of their books, and the founding of The New Republic, would have happened while all cohabitating at the House of Truth.
The New Nationalism was a campaign slogan and a collection of Roosevelt speeches published in 1910 inspired from Herbert Croly’s, The Promise of American Life, published in 1909. These Roosevelt speeches serve as the catalyst for much of what develops in 1913, the House of Truth itself created to support Roosevelt’s Bull Moose campaign, and it is here, in these speeches, we see the first indications that America was preparing for war.
Using the introduction of Taylorism as a catalyst, the American private sector joins forces with the federal government, through their mutual interest in efficiency and preparedness. Through the soft, facilitating hands of Bernard Baruch, we see the creation of the War Industries Board, the literal manufacture of a new corporatism, the first sightings of the American mass production industry, 20th Century American foreign policy, and the founding of American Fascism.
Roosevelt admitting in his speech, “combinations in industry … cannot be repealed … effort at prohibiting all combination has substantially failed. The way out lies, not in attempting to prevent such combinations, but in completely controlling them in the interest of public welfare.”
Many then, as do now, point to Croly’s Promises as overtly advocating for Fascism and totalitarian government. Croly while living on Connecticut Avenue, just two minutes from Lippmann & Co., then followed up his tome manifesto by releasing Progressive Democracy in the year 1914. It seems from this home in the Dupont neighbourhood of Northwest Washington was where the entire idea of Progressivism in America was dreamed up.
The New History, written by Progressive leader and Harvard BA MA grad, James Harvey Robinson, was more than just a book. It was, just as Roosevelt’s New Nationalism, the beginning of an entire social movement. Only this time, it was a complete rethink of how we look at history. And the social sciences once again take center stage. A selective view of the human past, excluding trivialities, covering more than the “traditional political, diplomatic, and military history”, involving speculative, “interpretation” that utilized “the relevant tools and concepts of the social studies, particularly anthropology, sociology, psychology, economics etc.” All of these more well known today as the social sciences. Just as Brandeis and Frankfurter, Robinson was known as a radical socialist reformer, helping found the New School for Social Research, and called upon historians “to embrace a New History allied to the latest social studies and able to promote a just social order.”
In its introduction, after first acknowledging Theodore Roosevelt’s The New Nationalism and Woodrow Wilson’s The New Freedom, Harvey Wish identifies three other key figures, as equally important to their progressive cause, The New Jurisprudence of Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., The New Psychology of William James, and The New Education of John Dewey.
Wish revealing a rather interesting nucleus of social reformers all involved in the promotion of progress. Oliver Wendell Holmes often the most honoured of guests at the House of Truth while William James was an important personal influence on Walter Lippmann while at Harvard, and John Dewey helping Robinson, Charles Austin Beard, Alvin Saunders Johnson, and Thorsten Veblen, in founding the New School for Social Research.
As we’ve explained in our previous article, The House of Truth and the Devil’s Agent, we see Holmes, along with Brandeis and Frankfurter experimenting with US Constitutional Law. These three Harvard PBK Supreme Court Justices saw the Constitution as did James T. Shotwell when authoring the International Labor Organization; or, as did Robinson and Beard when authoring their ‘new’ history; or, as did Sidney Webb and his Fabian cohorts, when forming the League of Nations; as an obstacle to their entire Progressive plan.
The Industrialized Man and the US Constitution were repugnant, and they all knew it.
“especially interesting in his [Robinson’s] reliance upon psychology, especially of the Behaviorist variety, and Freudian psychoanalytical thought.” Introduction xx, The New History
James Harvey Robinson
Hugo Munsterberg publishes Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, 1913. Munsterberg was an assistant to Wilhelm Wundt, the “father of experimental psychology”, and the first to establish a psychological laboratory at Leipzig University the same year William James did the same at Harvard. Leipzig became a hotbed for the burgeonoing field of what Wundt called physiological psychology. Famous Russian behaviourists, Vladimir Bekhterev and Ivan Pavlov studied under Wundt.
The list of men who studied under, or received their Ph.D from Wundt and then proceeded to establish experimental psychological laboratories of their own at all the major American universities is a long one and include some of the most recognizable names in, not only psychology, but philosophy and common education.
The following list includes all of the Wundtian disciples and the universities where they established psychological laboratories and periodicals, in a coordinated effort to legitimize another soft science. Not insignificantly, these men held the very first doctorates ever given to Americans:
Granville Stanley Hall (the father of developmental psychology, adolescent psychology) at Johns Hopkins and Clark University; James McKeen Cattell at the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University; Walter Dill Scott at Northwestern University; Charles Hubbard Judd at Yale, New York University, the University of Cincinnati and the University of Chicago; James Earl Russell at the University of Colorado and the Teacher’s College at Columbia University; James Mark Baldwin at the University of Toronto and Princeton Universities; Edward Bratford Titchener (Wundt’s English interpretor), at Cornell; William Lowe at Illinois University; Olin Templin at Kansas University; Harry Kirke Wolfe at the University of Nebraska; Andrew C Armstrong at Wesleyan University; Frank Angell at Cornell and Stanford; Edward Wheeler Scripture at Columbia University; Lightner Witner (the founder of the psychological clinic) at the University of Pennsylvania; George T.W. Patrick at the University of Iowa; Harlow Stearns Gale at the University of Minnesota; George Malcolm Stratton at the University of California Berkeley; and August Kirschmann at University of Toronto.
Munsterberg and his book, like the others before, serve as catalysts for an entire movement. Munsterberg met William James while in Paris, at the First International Conference on Physiological Psychology in 1889. James invited Munsterberg to accept a three year lecture contract at Harvard and would eventually hire the German to lead his new psychology laboratory. Munsterberg would stay much longer than anticipated and was very successful during his Harvard years, becoming the president of the American Psychological Association, president of the American Philosophical Association, a member of the Washington Academy and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Munsterberg would also become influential internationally as the organizer and vice-president of the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at the St. Louis World’s Fair of 1904, vice-president of the International Psychological Congress in Paris in 1900, and vice-president of the International Philosophical Congress at Heidelberg in 1907.
His book, Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, published in 1913 is considered today as the very beginnings of industrial psychology. Munsterberg wrote to Frederick Winslow Taylor:
“Our aim is to sketch the outlines of a new science, which is to intermediate between the modern laboratory psychology and the problem of economics … the psychological experiment is systematically to be placed at the service of commerce and industry” pg. 3.
Munsterberg bringing together the two disciplines of Wundtian structuralism and James’ functionalism influencing the work of Edward Thorndike, one of the early pioneers of behaviourism who would then in turn inspire the work of a generation including: John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner. Watson describing psychology as an, “experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior.” And Skinner a widely cited social engineer famous for the Skinner Box, his zoological approach to humans and involvement in the Changing Image of Man Study. All of these men today considered the most influential psychologists and thinkers of the 20th Century.
An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States also published in 1913 by James Harvey Robinson’s close confidante and fellow father of the Progressive Movement Charles Beard. Beard wrote the iconoclastic book as a direct critique of the American Founding Fathers and helped to establish a new perspective on American history from its very origins.
Its publication “excited progressives who wished to curb the powers of the Supreme Court”. Interestingly, Beard a student of Robinson’s, arrived at Columbia direct from Oxford, and a Fabian socialist. Both these figures were extremely controversial during their time at Columbia. Both would leave under scandalous conditions to form the New School for Social Research. A Marxist organization as are all social research institutions.
The New Statesman, a Fabian socialist rag was also created in the year 1913. And as we now know, the Fabians, especially Sidney Webb and George Bernard Shaw ever present at the Inter-Allied Labor Socialist meetings that directly led to the Covenant of the League of Nations. Shaw also present in the Weimar circles. And their work funding the Taylor Society as well as inspiring the entire Progressive movement.
Sidney Webb’s, Industrial Democracy, published in 1902, serving as a catalyst for the Progressive movement in both the UK and the US. Fabian socialism became the British Labor Party and is still very influential in the radical social reformation we see today. A very similar message being evoked today just as then, under similar conditions of war, social justice, and a belief in expertness. For those unfamiliar, the Fabian logo a wolf in sheep’s clothing and their motto, ‘molding the world closer to our hearts desire.’ A strategy they deliver through slow, methodical social change, rather than a more brutal, inhumane, military conquest.
The Great Society, published by another Fabian founding member, Graham Wallas, in 1914. A phrase picked up and used so much by his close personal friend Walter Lippmann in American literary circles that Lippmann himself is often cited as the coiner of the term. The subtitle of Wallas’ most well known work being ‘a psychological analysis’ and the subject matter a further development of his Harvard speeches entitled Government 31 which Walter Lippmann was present for, in the spring of 1910. Wallas in his preface, addresses Lippmann directly from the London School of Economics , “in the hope that it may be of some help when you write that sequel to your Preface to Politics”, (a book not so coincidentally published also in the year 1913, and the follow up to which Wallas refers is Lippmann’s, Drift and Mastery), published in 1914. Drift and Mastery considering the socio-economic possibilities of a society caught in the “obvious drift of our time” while the government, “gropes for the conditions of mastery”:
The New Democracy, published in 1912, was Walter Weyl’s reinterpretation of what democracy means. Weyl very involved in the founding of The New Republic, and according to House of Truth biographer Brad Snyder, was the “third founding editor and principal political writer … a trained economist, freelance journalist.” Snyder calls, The New Democracy, “another important work of progressive political philosophy”.
Weyl’s book advocated for, as did all of their progressive books, a more centralized federal government, less attention on the rights of the individual, experimentation of the Constitution, and more government attention and money be paid towards social equality, social justice, and a reliance on the social science expert. The New Democracy, it should come as no surprise to anyone by now, was written in support of the 1912 presidential campaign of Theodore Roosevelt. The Bull Moose.
The New Republic founded in 1914 by Lippmann, Croly, Frankfurter, Weyl, Alvin Saunders Johnson, along with a four year promise of funding from Dorothy Paine Whitney and her husband, Willard Straight, a JP Morgan representative. Along with guidance from Billings Learned Hand and others connected to Harvard Law School. Their collective dream of scientific liberalism, “a liberalism centered in humanitarian and moral passion and one based in an ethos of scientific analysis”. Frankfurter very involved in the planning stages and:
“was listed as a trustee on the magazines first statement of ownership, attended meetings, and later wrote many signed and unsigned editorials on political and legal issues.” The House of Truth, Brad Snyder, pg. 91.
Croly described the magazine as “radically progressive”.
While officially created in the year 1914, The New Republic’s foundational framework was obviously constructed while they were all living at the House of Truth starting as early as 1911. The key inhabitants are the key founding editors. Both the House of Truth and The New Republic are considered widely even today, as being extremely influential in changing the character and definition of liberalism from an interest in individual rights, towards a more centralized, scientifically controlled society.
The New Freedom, published in 1913, was a collated series of speeches Woodrow Wilson admits in the foreword to have never written. Both William Bayard Hale and Louis Brandeis, and Walter Lippmann were well-known speechwriters for Wilson. Within the pages of The New Freedom, ‘Wilson’ warns that “the old order changeth”, while setting a new course for the West, “we are in the presence of a new organization of society”. For the forensic historian, The New Freedom offers one of the most important historical admissions ever, shared below.
From the, not so coincidental publications of progressively minded books, all from the primary leaders of Progressivism to the constant promotion of a large, centralized government and a scientifically managed society. From the many admissions to it all being an experiment, to the connections to the oldest secret societies in America show conclusively, that whether it be a new spirit, a new democracy, a new republic, a new nationalism, a new jurisprudence, a new psychology, a new education, or a new freedom. The New Age was dawning on America.
When one takes a deeper look, as we at Bulletproof have, its not hard to see the coordinated effort. It doesn’t take much convincing to say that the year 1913, like a photograph, captured a unique and important moment in history. A snapshot showing a deliberate infiltration of all aspects of Western society, those same aspects described some sixty years later, in The Changing Images of Man Study: mystical, cosmological, sociological, pedagogical or psychological, editorial, political and magical. This latest information, when put together with what our previous research has been uncovering, sure paints an impressive mosaic. An aggressively radical social reform movement, all delivered with a religious fervor and a promise to never look back.
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